Electrolytic Conductance: Current through Electrolytes, Factors Affecting (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Electrolytic Conductance: Current through Electrolytes

  • Metals are good conductors of electricity as they have a pool of free electrons that flow under the influence of a potential gradient and cause the electric current.
  • Electrolytes are those substances that dissolve in a solvent and dissociate into charged ions; the positive ions are known as cations, and the negative ions are called anions.
  • In the case of metals, the conduction is due to the flow of charge that is electrons. In the electrolytic solution, the charged particles present are the ions and hence an electrolytic solution is capable of conducting electric current.

Conductors and Insulators

  • Conductors are materials that allow free flow of electrons from one particle to another. These are elements which have electric charges in the form of electrons that are comparatively free to move inside the material. Insulators are materials that hinder the free flow of electrons from one particle of the element to another.
  • If we transfer some amount of charge to such an element at any point, the charge remains at the initial location and does not get distributed across the surface.
Conductors and Insulators

Examples of Conductors

  • Material such as silver is the best conductor of electricity. But it is costly and so, we don՚t use silver in industries and transmission of electricity.
  • Copper, Brass, Steel, Gold, and Aluminium are good conductors of electricity. We use them in electric circuits and systems in the form of wires.
  • Mercury is an excellent liquid conductor. Thus, this material finds use in many instruments.
  • Gases are not good conductors of electricity because the atoms are quite far away. Thus, they are unable to conduct electrons.

Examples of Insulators

  • Glass is the best insulator as it has the highest resistivity.
  • Plastic is a good insulator and it finds it use in making a number of things.
  • Rubber is a common material used in making tyres, fire-resistant clothes and slippers. This is because it is a very good insulator.

Electrolytic Conductors

  • The ability of electrolytic solutions to allow the passage of electric current through them is known as the electrolytic conductance. This ability is rendered by ions that are present in the solution due to the dissociation of the electrolyte. The electrolytes can conduct electricity only in the molten or aqueous state and not in any solid form.
  • Some of the typical examples of electrolytes that conduct electricity either in molten form or aqueous state are etc. There are various parameters such as the concentration of ions and the type of electrolyte that affect the conductivity of electrolytes.
  • It is due to the flow of ions.
  • It is accompanied by decomposition of the substance.
  • It involves transfer of matter in the form of ions.
  • Conductivity increases with increases in temperature and degree of hydration due to decrease in viscosity of medium.

Factors Affecting Electrolytic Conductance

Concentration of Ions

The sole reason for the conductivity of electrolytes is the ions present in them. The conductivity of electrolytes increases with increase in the concentration of ions as there will be more charge carriers if the concentration of ions is more and hence the conductivity of electrolytes will be high.

Concentration of Ions

Nature of Electrolyte

  • Electrolytic conduction is significantly affected by the nature of electrolytes. The degree of dissociation of electrolytes determines the concentration of ions in the solution and hence the conductivity of electrolytes.
  • Substances such as , with a small degree of separation, will have a smaller number of ions in the solution and hence their conductivity will also below, and these are called weak electrolytes.
  • Strong electrolytes such as have a high degree of dissociation and hence their solutions have a high concentration of ions and so they are good electrolytic conductance.

Temperature

  • Temperature affects the degree to which an electrolyte gets dissolved in solution. It has been seen that higher temperature enhances the solubility of electrolytes and hence the concentration of ions which results in increased electrolytic conduction.
  • The conductivity of electrolytes is of great importance, their studies have been the base for the development of many devices such as batteries and other devices.

Question

What is Conductance of Electrolytic Solution?

Answer:

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Conductivity (or specific conductance) of an electrolyte solution is a measure of its ability to conduct electricity. The SI unit of conductivity is Siemens per meter (S/m) .

What Are the Factors Affecting Electrolytic Conductance?

Answer:

  • Factors that affect the conductivity of electrolytes (ESAFQ)
  • The concentration of ions in solution. The higher the concentration of ions in solution, the higher its conductivity will be.
  • The type of substance that dissolves in water.
  • Temperature.

How Does Electrolytic Conductance Change with Dilution?

Answer:

Conductivity changes with the concentration of the electrolyte. The number of ions per unit volume carrying the current decreases on dilution, so conductivity always decreases with decrease in concentration. However, molar conductivity increases with dilution.

How Does Current Flow through an Electrolyte?

Answer:

An electrolyte is a substance that will allow current to flow through the solution when dissolved in water. The current flows through the solution in the form of positive ions moving toward the negative electrode and negative ion (anions) moving the positive electrode.

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