# Equilibrium: Le Chatelier՚s Principle, Electrolytes, Lewis Acid and Base (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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## Equilibrium

• Equilibrium is attained when molecules leaving the liquid to vapour equal the molecules returning to the liquid from vapour.
• In the mid 1860s, Norwegian scientists C. M. Guldberg and P. Waage noted a peculiar relationship between the amounts of reactants and products in an equilibrium.
• Kc is the equilibrium constant.
• No matter how many reactants they started with, a certain ratio of reactants and products was achieved at equilibrium
• It is defined as the concentration of products divided by the concentration of reactants where each term is raised to the stoichiometric coefficient.

## Le Chatelier՚s Principle

• It states that change in any factor such as concentration, pressure, temperature, etc. causes the equilibrium to shift in such a direction to counteract or reduce the effect of a change.
• It states that when a system experiences a disturbance (such as concentration, temperature, or pressure changes) , it will respond to restore a new equilibrium state.

## Electrolytes

• Electrolytes are substances which conduct electricity in aqueous solution. Some examples of electrolytes are bases, salts, and acids.
• Electrolytes are minerals in your body that have an electric charge. They are in your blood, urine, tissues, and other body fluids.
• The electricity conducted in aqueous solution is due to cations and anions produced by the ionization or dissociation of electrolytes in the solution.
• Electrolytes are important because they help. Balance the amount of water in your body. Balance your body՚s acid/base level.

## Lewis Acid and Base

• A Lewis acid is a species containing an empty orbital which can accept an electron pair (an electrophile) from a Lewis base and forms a Lewis adduct.
• A Lewis base is a species having a filled orbital which contains an electron pair that will not be involved in bonding but might form a dative bond with Lewis acid.
• A coordinate covalent bond is just a type of covalent bond in which one reactant gives it electron pair to another reactant. In this case the Lewis base donates its electrons to the Lewis acid.
• Lewis Acid: a species that accepts an electron pair (i.e.. , an electrophile) and will have vacant orbitals
• Lewis Base: a species that donates an electron pair (i.e.. , a nucleophile) and will have lone-pair electrons

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