Food Chemistry, Components of the Food We Eat, Vitamins, Question (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

Get top class preparation for competitive exams right from your home: get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of your exam.

Food Chemistry

Food Chemistry involves the study of the chemical process of all biological and non-biological elements of food.

Examples of Food Chemistry

There are certain food technologies which we experience in our daily lives which we do not know are the results of innovations in food chemistry. Some examples are:

  • Fermentation of dairy products: Apart from natural fermentation, to speed up the process we use microorganisms which aid the process of conversion from lactose to lactic acid.
  • Fat & Sugar Substitutes: We know how fat & sugar cause different ailments, but with the help of food chemistry, chemists are coming up with substitutes which offer the same taste without the bad effects.

Components of the Food We Eat


  • Water is a major component of almost every type of food we eat. But water also provides a place for bacterial growth which leads to food spoilage. Thus, measuring the amount of water in a food item can be used to measure the shell life of an object.
  • The shelf life can be altered by different methods such as:
    • Refrigeration⧵Freezing
    • Dehydration
  • Percentage of water in food:
    • Meat – 50 %
    • Eggs – 75 %
    • Watermelon – 92 %
    • Lettuce – 95 %
    • Cucumber – 96 %


  • A carbohydrate is a biomolecule which is responsible for providing energy for most organisms. They are also known as saccharides. They are found in white bread, sugars, candies, fruits, vegetables, pulses, and whole meal pasta.
  • Some examples of Carbohydrates are:
    • Glucose, galactose, fructose, glucose, galactose, fructose,
    • General Formula –
  • Carbohydrates can be classified as:
    • Monosaccharides
    • Disaccharides
    • Polysaccharides


The term lipids refer to non -polar compounds or water-insoluble compounds of biological origin. The main functions of lipids are:

  • Storing energy
  • Signalling
  • As structural components of cell membranes

Types of Lipids

  • Fatty acids
  • Glycerolipids
  • Glycerophospholipids
  • Sphingolipids
  • Sterol lipids
  • Prenol lipids
  • Saccharolipids
  • Polyketides


  • Proteins play a fundamental role in the structure and functioning of a cell. Proteins in food are important for the survival and growth of a human being. They are essential building blocks of human tissue and in extreme cases serve as a fuel source. Some of the common sources of proteins through food are:
    • Meat
    • Milk
    • Eggs

Protein structure


Vitamins are essential for the metabolic activity of a body. They are broken down into Vitamin E and Vitamin C as nutrients. Inadequate supply of vitamins would lead to diseases such as scurvy, anaemia, and beriberi. An exuberance of vitamins would lead to vomiting, nausea and may also lead to death.


How is Chemistry Used in Food?


Chemical substances can play an important role in food production and preservation. Food packaging materials and containers such as bottles, cups and plates, used to improve food handling and transport, can contain chemical substances such as plastic, elements of which can migrate into food.

What is Food Chemistry?


Food chemistry is the study of chemical processes and interactions of all biological and non-biological components of foods. The biological substances include such items as meat, poultry, lettuce, beer, milk as examples.

Can We Eat Food Without Chemicals?


Remember that eating nonorganic fruits and vegetables, even those with higher pesticide levels, is better than not eating fruits and vegetables at all. Organic foods are free of chemicals like hormones and antibiotics.

Why is Food Chemistry Important?


Food chemistry as a major branch of food science deals with the composition and properties of foods and the chemical changes they undergo. Food chemists also play a major role in ensuring that food produced is safe and of high quality.

What Chemicals Are Involved in Food Chemistry?


Basic food chemistry deals with the three primary components in food: carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Carbohydrates make up a group of chemical compounds found in plant and animal cells.

Developed by: