List Out Few General Characteristics of Organic Compounds: Organic Compounds (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Title: List Out Few General Characteristics of Organic Compounds

Organic Compounds

ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
  • Earlier people thought that compounds which are obtained from plants and animals are organic compounds and compounds which are obtained from minerals, non-living sources are termed as inorganic compounds.
  • So, the modern definition of organic compounds is a bit different to this.
  • An organic compound is defined as any compound whose molecules contain carbon and hydrogen (also known as “hydrocarbons” ) or compound that is the derivative of it.
  • Branch of science which deals with the scientific study of structure, properties and reactions of hydrocarbons and their derivatives is known as organic chemistry.
  • It was once thought to be confined to the study of substances produced as part of the natural processes of living organisms, but as Friedrich Wohler discovered in the early 1800s, organic compounds can be synthesized from minerals and other non-organic materials in the laboratory.
  • Though modern chemistry and materials sciences have concentrated on the remarkable properties of carbon atoms for the production of synthetic chemicals, pesticides and a host of other things.
  • It contain carbon, almost always bonded to another carbon and/or hydrogen.
  • Sometimes, other elements, such as phosphorus, nitrogen and oxygen, are also bound to carbons.
  • A few carbon compounds are not considered organic molecules.
  • Those involve carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, cyanates, cyanides and other carbon-containing ion compounds.
  • Other elements, such as phosphorus, nitrogen and oxygen, are also sometimes bound to carbon.
  • There are a few carbon compounds which are not considered organic molecules. Those involve carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, cyanates, cyanides and other carbon-containing ion compounds.
  • Alcohols include chemicals such as ethanol and isopropanol. They are used as antiseptics and ethanol is a staple of the beverage industry.
  • So, carboxylic acids include a wide range of chemicals, including pharmaceuticals. Aspirin, one of the oldest commercial medicines, contains carboxylic acid.
  • While there are millions of organic compounds, there is a fairly simple classification scheme for these compounds and a method for naming even the most complex organic compounds. This unit will focus on helping you to identify the classification of organic compounds and to name only some of the most common of these compounds.

General Characteristics of Organic Compounds Are

  • Organic compounds include complex structures and high molecular weights.
  • Comprise almost 90 % of all known compounds
  • These are soluble in organic solvents and mostly insoluble in water.
  • Can be isolated as well as prepared in laboratory
  • Mostly depend on only three elements: Carbon, Hydrogen and nitrogen.
  • Chemical reactions involving organic compounds proceed at slower rates.
  • These compounds are combustible in nature.
  • They are combustible in nature
  • Most properties of the compounds are decided by the functional group attached to them.