Graphite, Structure of Graphite, Uses, Properties, Physical Properties, Questions (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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What is Graphite?

  • Graphite is a type of crystal carbon and a half-metal along with being one of the renowned carbon allotropes.
  • Under the conditions that are ideal, it would be one of the most stable forms of carbon available. To define the standard state of heat for making compounds of carbons.
Graphite Types of Crystal Carbon


Structure of Graphite

  • This crystal carbon has a structure that is planar and layered. Graphene is the term used to denote each layer of the same.
  • Every layer has atoms of carbon arranged in a honeycomb-like a network with the division of 0.142 nm with 0.335 nm distance between planes.
  • There is a covalent bonding for atoms in the plane with the criteria being met by only three out of four probable bonding sites.
  • The graphite would be conducive electrically owing to the fourth electron having a chance to migrate into the plane.
  • The layers of the carbon crystal could swiftly move past each other as the layers could be separated easily as van der Waals bonds that are weak-hold them together.
Graphite Structure Animation

Graphite Structure Animation

  • The widely-known types of this carbon crystal viz. beta and alpha have almost the same material properties with the exception of the layers of graphene stack a little differently. The alpha crystal would seem bent or as flat.
  • To convert one form to other viz. from alpha to beta it could be done by treating it mechanically. Then from beta to alpha conversion would be done by heating the crystal above .
Graphite Structure

Graphite Structure

  • As the photons travel faster through the planes that are narrowly built but moves slowly from one plane to the next, the carbon crystal has heavily anisotropic thermal and acoustic features. The uses of the crystal include electrodes and refractories used in applications for processing materials in high temperature all due to the single reason that
  • Graphite has high thermal and electrical conductivity and high thermal stability. Mainly at temperatures of and above, the crystal carbon undergoes oxidation to form .

Uses of Graphite

  • In modern times, Graphite is usually consumed in steelmaking, brake linings, lubricants, foundry facings, batteries to name a few.
  • One of the important components of graphite viz. graphene has certain special features and is one of the widely known strong materials. To separate the component from the carbon crystal would require better advances in technology.
  • The uses of the crystal include electrodes and refractories used in applications for processing materials in high temperature.
  • Graphite is used in making pencil lead.
  • Graphite is used in the nuclear reactor to control the nuclear fission reaction because of the ability of graphite to absorb fast moving neutrons.

Properties of Graphite

Physical Properties of Graphite

  • Graphite is a good conductor of electricity due to its free delocalized electron which is free to move throughout the sheets.
  • Graphite is having a high melting point of near to the melting point of diamond.
  • Graphite has the ability to absorb high speed neutrons.


What Are the Useful Properties of Graphite?


  • It is unique in that it has properties of both a metal and a non-metal: it is flexible but not elastic, has a high thermal and electrical conductivity, and is highly refractory and chemically inert.
  • Graphite has a low adsorption of X-rays and neutrons making it a particularly useful material in nuclear applications.

What Properties of Graphite Make It Useful in Pencils?


  • Its softness and streak make graphite useful in making “lead” for pencils. It is flexible, but not elastic.
  • Crystals are uncommon, but when they occur, they are found as rough, six-sided (hexagonal) flakes. It breaks into minute, flexible flakes that easily slide over one another.

What is Graphite Used For?


  • Graphite is used in pencils and lubricants.
  • It is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Its high conductivity makes it useful in electronic products such as electrodes, batteries, and solar panels.

Why is Graphite Shiny?


  • Depending on your angle of view, the square may seem inky dark, or silvery-grey, depending on how it catches the light.
  • This is the dreaded “graphite shine” . What՚s happened here is that you՚ve basically buffed-up the surface of the graphite under all that back-and-forth pressure with the pencil.

Is Graphite GREY or Black?


Graphite ranges in color from gray to black and is both opaque and metallic in appearance. It is composed of carbon atoms and can be considered coal in its highest grade, though it is not typically used as a fuel.

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