History of the Periodic Table, Doberiener՚s Triads, Newland՚s Octaves, Mendeleev՚s Periodic Table (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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History of the Periodic Table

We should get familiar with the word periodic table before we start up with the history of the modern periodic table.

What is a Periodic Table?

  • Periodic table is just a table in which elements are randomly arranged or the elements are arranged in the fixed pattern.
  • The periodic table is basically a table in which elements are arranged on the basis of the atomic number. Elements having similar chemical properties fall under the same vertical column. These vertical columns are known as the periodic table groups.

Doberiener՚s Triads

  • The German chemist, Johann Dobereiner in 1800 first observed similarities in the elements on the basis of their properties. He saw that there are groups consisting of three elements (triads) that have similar chemical and physical properties.
  • In every group, the atomic weight of the middle element was half of the sum of the atomic weight of the other two elements. Properties of the middle element were also in the halfway of both the elements. Dobereiner called this grouping method as the law of triads. Later on, it was found that this law was not true for every element and hence it was not successful.
Doberiener Triads
ElementAtomic WeightElementAtomic WeightElementAtomic Weight
Li7Ca40Cl35.5
Na23Sr88Br80
K39Ba137I127

Newland՚s Octaves

  • After the failure of Doberiener՚s triad the English chemist, John Alexander Newlands gave the law of octaves. According to him, elements can be arranged in ascending order of their atomic weights.
  • He also said that in this arrangement every eighth element of a row had similar properties to that of the first element of the same row, depicting the octaves of music. This law was also dismissed as it was only true for elements of up to calcium.
Newland Octaves
ElementLiBeBCNOF
Atomic weight791112141619
ElementNaMgAlSiPSCl
Atomic weight23242729313235.5
ElementKCa
Atomic weight3940

Mendeleev՚s Periodic Table

The real development in the periodic table took place after the development of Mendeleev՚s periodic table. He gave a law which states that “The properties of an element are the periodic function of their atomic masses” . He arranged elements in periods (horizontal rows) and groups (vertical columns) in the increasing order of atomic weights. The vertical column consists elements that have similar properties.

Mendeleev Periodic Table

Mendeleev՚s Periodic Table

Limitations of Mendeleev՚s Periodic Table

  • It did not provide a clear idea about the structure of the atom.
  • In order to arrange elements in a group, the order of atomic weight was reversed several times.

Questions

What is the Brief History of Periodic Table?

Answer:

  • In 1869 Russian chemist Dimitri Mendeleev started the development of the periodic table, arranging chemical elements by atomic mass.
  • He predicted the discovery of other elements, and left spaces open in his periodic table for them. In 1886 French physicist Antoine Bequerel first discovered radioactivity.

What Exactly is the Periodic Table?

Answer:

  • The periodic table is a tabular array of the chemical elements organized by atomic number, from the element with the lowest atomic number, hydrogen, to the element with the highest atomic number, oganesson.
  • The atomic number of an element is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element.

What is the Purpose of Periodic Table?

Answer:

  • The periodic table is the most important chemistry reference there is. It arranges all the known elements in an informative array.
  • Elements are arranged left to right and top to bottom in order of increasing atomic number. Order generally coincides with increasing atomic mass.

What is the Most Useless Element on the Periodic Table?

Answer:

Thulium

Within the standard 92 elements found in nature, most have at least some practical uses, the most useless probably being Thulium, which is usually the butt of jokes on the subject, but still has some actual applications.

How Did Mendeleev from the Periodic Table?

Answer:

  • Mendeleev wrote the atomic weight and the properties of each element on a card. He took the cards everywhere he went. While arranging these cards of atomic data, Mendeleev discovered what is called the Periodic Law.
  • When Mendeleev arranged the elements in order of increasing atomic mass, the properties where repeated.

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