Matter in Our Surrounding, Characteristics, Diffusion, State of Matter, Factors Affecting (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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  • Our cosmos is made up of matter. The matter is stated as any substance that has mass, takes volume and may be comprehended by the senses. Exceptions: Heat, electrical energy, light energy, sound energy, magnetism, vacuum, a shadow is not a matter because it has no mass and does not take up space.
  • The matter is composed of small constituent parts. The units of matter are very minute. We cannot see them even with a high-power microscope.
Three States of Matter

Three States of Matter

Characteristics of Matter

The Characteristics of Matter are listed below.

  • The matter is created out of small particles.
  • The particles have intermolecular spaces amidst them.
  • The particles of matter are locomotive in nature because they have kinetic energy. The motion of the constituent particles intensifies with a surge in temperature.
  • The bits in matter draw each other, but this reciprocal force of pull is operational only when the particles are very close by to each other. In solids, these units are narrowly crammed, and hence they have superior intermolecular force attraction although, in gases, the groups are lightly held. Therefore, they have feeble forces of attractions.


  • The intermingling of the particles of two or more materials on their own is called diffusion.
  • Diffusion is quicker in gases. The speed of diffusion is different in different gases. Lighter gas intermingles at a faster speed than denser gases. Liquids, as well as solids, undergo dissemination. However, the speed of diffusion in solids is pretty low. As particles of liquids move slowly, diffusion in liquids is slower than gases.

State of Matter

  • Matter can be classified as solid, liquid and gas on the basis of interparticle forces and the arrangement of particles.
  • These three forms of matter are interconvertible by increasing or decreasing pressure and temperature. For example, ice can be converted from solid to a liquid by increasing the temperature.
  • Atomic view of the three state of matter


Solid Matter


Liquids Structure


Gas Molecules

Factors Affecting Diffusion


The rate of diffusion is inversely relative to the mass of liquid or a gas. Greater the density, smaller the rate of diffusion.


The speed of diffusion is directly proportionate to the temperature. As the temperature increases the kinetic energy of the constituent units՚ upsurges and they travel with greater speed resulting in an amplified rate of diffusion.

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