# Matter in Our Surrounding, Characteristics, Diffusion, State of Matter, Factors Affecting (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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## Classification of Matter

Classification of Matter

The matter has been characterized into five states by the researchers i.e.. , solid, liquid, gas, plasma and Bose-Einstein Condensate. Amid these states, the most familiar states of matter that exist around us are as solids, liquids and gases.

### Solid State

When the particles are packed together firmly, they form solids. In solids, the particles only vibrate about their fixed positions, since their kinetic energy is low and not sufficient to let them breakdown away from their common force of the pull. Thus, solids have definite forms, volumes and are not compressible. That՚s why they do not flow or diffuse.

#### Exceptions

• A rubber band can be strained under force, and it recovers to the same shape when the force is removed.
• If a similar rubber band is stretched maximum with excessive force, it breaks.
• The sponge is one more example of solid, which has minuscule holes in which the air is confined.
• When it is squeezed with a hand, the air is ejected out, and it gets compressed.

### Liquid State

• In liquids, the kinetic energies of the atoms are more than solids, and the atoms are not fixed to any positions. They move about at will, arbitrarily, all through the liquid. Though, they do not have sufficient kinetic energy to break out of the borderlines of the liquid form. That clarifies why liquids do not have fixed shapes and pour or diffuse at will, but they do have fixed volumes.
• Also, when equated to solids, there are more spaces amongst the atoms of liquids, but not sufficient to make liquids compressible.

### Gaseous State

• In gases, the atoms are not crammed together at all, as their kinetic energies are high enough to let them break free from any boundaries. They are unrestricted to move about in arbitrary motion.
• That is why gases have no fixed figure or volume, and they flow and diffuse readily. They crash into each other, and off the walls of their container. Gas applies pressure on its vessel. Also, as the spaces between the atoms are large, gases are exceedingly compressible.

### Plasma State

• The fourth state of matter is Plasma. Plasma is comparable to the gaseous state. The state involves super active and super energized atoms in the form of ionized gases. Plasma is created by heating a gas until it loses all its electrons. It is existent in stars. The plasma is formed in the sun and stars because of very high temperature. The sun and stars radiate because of the existence of plasma in them.
• The fluorescent tube and neon sign bulbs contain plasma. The gas present inside these bulbs and tubes is an inert gas. When electricity is passed through them, the gas gets ionized and charged. This charging up creates a glowing plasma, having a particular colour depending on the nature of the gas.

## Bose Einstein Condensates

• The model of BEC was thought of by the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose in 1920 and was advanced by the theory of BEC. Later Albert Einstein prophesied a new state of matter – the Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) .
• The BEC is created by freezing a gas of tremendously low density. Bose-Einstein condensate refers to the breakdown of atoms into a single quantum state. It is found at low temperatures when particles are not incapable of moving.

## Physical Nature of Matter

• A physical property is that aspect of the matter that can be observed or measured without changing its nature or composition.
• It is independent of the amount of matter present.
• Physical properties include appearance, colour, odour, density, texture, melting point, boiling point, solubility, etc.

## Characteristics of Particles of Matter

Matter

Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space.

• Everything that we can touch, see, hear, taste and also smell is matter.
• It is made up of really tiny particles which cannot be seen through the eye.

The particles of which the matter is comprised influence its state and properties (physical and chemical) .

### Particles of Matter Have Spaces between Them

This characteristic is one of the concepts behind the solubility of a substance in other substances. For example, on dissolving sugar in water, there is no rise in water level because the particles of sugar get into the interparticle spaces between the water particles.

### Particles of Matter Are Always in Motion

• Particles of the matter show continuous random movements due to the kinetic energy they possess.
• A rise in temperature increases the kinetic energy of the particles, making them move more vigorously.

### Particles of Matter Attract Each Other

In every substance, there is an interparticle force of attraction acting between the particles. To break a substance, we need to overcome this force. The strength of the force differs from one substance to another.

## Questions

### What is Matter in Our Surrounding?

• Matter- Matter is anything which occupies space and has mass is called matter. Air and water, sugar and sand, hydrogen and oxygen etc.
• Matter is made up of very small tiny particles. Particles of matter have space between them they attract each other.