Nitrogen, Chemical Properties, Uses of Nitrogen, Nitrogen Cycle, Questions (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Nitrogen Symbols
Atomic Number
Atomic Mass
Discovered byDaniel Rutherford in 1772

Nitrogen, nonmetallic element of group 15 [Va] of the periodic table. It is a colourless, odourless, tasteless gas that is the most plentiful element in Earth՚s atmosphere and is a constituent of all living matters.

Chemical Properties of Nitrogen

Chemical Properties of Nitrogen
GroupMelting point

PeriodBoiling point

Atomic NumberRelative atomic mass
State at GasKey isotopes
Electron configurationCAS number

What is Nitrogen?

  • The seventh element of the periodic table between carbon and oxygen is Nitrogen.
  • It՚s an important part of amino acids.
  • Around eighty percent of the Earth՚s atmosphere comprises nitrogen gas.
  • It has no colour, mostly diatomic nonmetal gas along with odourless and colourless in nature.
  • Since it has five electrons in its outer shell, most of its compounds are trivalent.
  • It is a constituent of all living tissues. Since it is a component of DNA and part of a genetic code, it is an essential element of life.
  • It is found in nitrates and nitrites in soil and water.
  • All these substances are part of the nitrogen cycle and interconnected. Industrial companies emit nitrogen extensively, increasing nitrite and nitrate content in the ground and water, being the consequence of reactions in the nitrogen cycle.

Uses of Nitrogen

  • It is used in the manufacture of ammonia, to produce nitric acid and subsequently used as a fertilizer.
  • Nitric acid salts include important compounds like potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, and nitric acid. Nitrated organic compounds such as nitroglycerine are often explosives.
  • Liquid nitrogen is utilized as a refrigerant for transporting foodstuff and freezing purposes. Preservation of bodies and reproductive cells and stable storage of biological samples also makes use of liquid nitrogen.

Nitrogen Cycle

A cycle is a sequence of events or steps that repeats itself regularly. In the nitrogen cycle, nitrogen moves from the soil to plants and then to animals and finally back to the soil. When it returns to the soil from a decaying plant it can be used again by another plant.

Nitrogen Cycle

Nitrogen Cycle

  • The nitrogen cycle has five general steps.
    • Nitrogen fixation
    • Nitrification
    • Denitrification
    • Nitrogen assimilation
    • Ammonification.
  • Over many years the actions of people began changing how nitrogen cycled through nature. This changed the amount of nitrogen found in living organisms and in the air, soil, and water. The balance of nature was upset. By understanding how the nitrogen cycle works people can change their actions and protect the environment.

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