Protons-The Fundamental Sub-Atomic Particle, Discovery, Properties, Subatomic (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Discovery and Features of Subatomic Particles

The discovery of the three basic subatomic particles and some of their important features are discussed in this subsection.


Protons and Neutrons together make up the nucleus of an atom and are hence called nucleons. Some important points regarding the discovery and properties of protons are listed below.

  • Protons are positively charged subatomic particles.
  • The number of protons in an atom is equal to the number of electrons in it.
  • The discovery of protons is credited to Ernest Rutherford.
  • Protons can be produced via the removal of an electron from a hydrogen atom.
  • The mass of a proton is .
  • The charge of a proton is


Electrons are the subatomic particles that revolve around the nucleus of an atom. These electrons may be removed from or gained by an atom to form ions. Electrons of different atoms come together to participate in chemical bonding. A few points detailing the discovery and the properties of electrons are listed below.

  • Electrons are negatively charged subatomic particles
  • An equal number of electrons and protons are found in the atoms of all elements.
  • J. Thompson is credited with the discovery of electrons since he was the first person to accurately calculate the mass and the charge on an electron.
  • The mass of an electron is negligible when compared to the mass of a proton. It is found to have a mass equal to times the mass of a proton.
  • The charge of an electron is equal to


Neutrons, along with protons, make up the nucleons. Neutrons are named for their neutral nature – unlike protons and electrons, they do not carry any charge. The discovery and general properties of neutrons are discussed below.

  • Neutrons are neutrally charged subatomic particles.
  • The masses of two different isotopes of an element vary due to the difference in the number of neutrons in their respective nuclei.
  • The neutron was discovered by James Chadwick in the year 1932.
  • They were discovered in an experiment wherein a thin sheet of beryllium was bombarded with alpha particles.
  • The mass of a neutron is .


Do Electrons Have Mass?


Electrons belong to the lepton particle family՚s first-generation and are usually considered to be elementary particles because they have no known parts or substructure. The electron has a mass about of the proton՚s mass.

Who is the Father of Proton?


Ernest Rutherford is the father of Proton.

What is Inside a Proton?


The proton, one of the atomic nuclei parts, consists of basic particles called quarks and gluons.

What Experiment Found the Proton?


Rutherford found proton in his famous experiment gold foil in 1909.

What is Electron Proton Neutron?


Atoms consist of small particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons. The nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons at the middle of the atom. The nucleus is surrounded by electrons. Protons are charged positively. Electrons are charged negatively.

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