Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom, Features of Quantum Mechanical Model, Questions (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom

  • Quantum mechanics is based on Schrodinger՚s wave equation and its solution. The solution of the wave equation brings the idea of shells, sub-shells and orbitals. The probability of finding an electron at a point within an atom is proportional to the at that point, where represents the wave-function of that electron.
  • Application of Schrodinger՚s equation to multi-electron atoms present՚s some difficulty: Schrödinger՚s wave equation cannot be solved exactly for a multi-electron atom. This difficulty was overcome by using approximate methods.
  • The application of Schrodinger wave equation in determining the structure of an atom led to the formation of the quantum mechanical model of an atom.
Quantum Mechanics

Features of Quantum Mechanical Model

  • The energy of an electron is quantized i.e.. , an electron can only have certain specific values of energy.
  • The quantized energy of an electron is the allowed solution of the Schrödinger wave equation and it is the result of wave like properties of electron.
  • As per Heisenberg՚s Uncertainty principle, the exact position and momentum of an electron cannot be determined. So, the only probability of finding an electron at a position can be determined and it is at that point where represents the wave-function of that electron.
  • An atomic orbital is the wave-function of an electron in an atom. Whenever an electron is described by a wave-function, it occupies atomic orbital. As an electron can have many wave-functions, there are many atomic orbitals for electron. Every wave-function or atomic orbital have some shape and energy associated with it. All the information about the electron in an atom is stored in its orbital wave function and quantum mechanics makes it possible to extract this information out of .
  • The probability of finding an electron at a point within an atom is proportional to the square of the orbital wave function i.e.. , at that point. is known as probability density and is always positive.
Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom

Questions

What is Quantum Mechanical Model of an Atom?

Answer:

The quantum mechanical model of the atom uses complex shapes of orbitals (sometimes called electron clouds) , volumes of space in which there is likely to be an electron. So, this model is based on probability rather than certainty.

What is the Significance of and in Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom?

Answer:

The wave function, , is also called an atomic orbital. While the wave function, ψ, has no physical meaning, the square of the wave function, , is does. probability that the electron will be found at a particular location in an atom.

What Are the Main Features of Quantum Mechanical Model of an Atom?

Answer:

What are important features of the quantum mechanical model of atom? The important features are:

  • The energy of electrons in atoms is quantized.
  • The existence of quantized electronic energy levels is a direct result of the wave like properties of electrons.

What is the Difference between Bohr Model and Quantum Model?

Answer:

In the Bohr Model, the electron is treated as a particle in fixed orbits around the nucleus. In the Quantum Mechanical Model, the electron is treated mathematically as a wave. The electron has properties of both particles and waves.

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