Salt Chemistry, Types of Salt, Properties of Salt, Hydrolysis of a Salt, Question (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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What is Salt in Chemistry?

  • Salt is an ionic compound that contains a cation (base) and an anion (acid) .
  • It is present in large quantities in seawater, where it is the main mineral constituent. Salt is essential for animal life and saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. Salt is an ionic compound that has a cation other than and an anion other than and is obtained along with water in the neutralization reaction between acids and bases.

Eg: etc.

Sodium chloride is one of the best-known salts. One salt is known to almost everyone because of its widespread use in every day.

Sodium Chloride
  • In chemistry, salt is produced when acids and bases are combined together in equal proportions. The process where acids and bases neutralize each other to form salt and water is known as neutralization.
  • The chemical formula of common salt is NaCl. NaCl stands for Sodium Chloride. Salt has many uses. For e. g. , salt is used for cooking, salt is used during the production of toothpaste, plastic, soaps, bleaches, etc. The pH of salt is 7 which means that it is neutral in nature i.e.. , it is neither acidic nor basic.

Types of Salt

Acidic Salt

The salt formed by partial neutralization of a diprotic or a polyprotic acid is known as an acidic salt. These salts have ionizable H + ion along with another cation. Mostly the ionizable H + is a part of the anion. Some acid salts are used in baking.

For e. g. :- etc.

Acidic Salt

Basic or Alkali Salt

The salt formed by the partial neutralization of a strong base by a weak acid is known as a basic salt. They hydrolyze to form a basic solution. It is because when hydrolysis of basic salt takes place, the conjugate base of the weak acid is formed in the solution.

For eg:- White lead

Double Salt

  • The salts that contain more than one cation or anion are known as double salt. They are obtained by the combination of two different salts crystallized in the same ionic lattice.
  • Double salts have more than one cation or anion. They՚re a crystalline salt having the composition of a mixture of two simple salts but with a different crystal structure from either. For e. g. , bromlite, potassium sodium tartrate, aluminium sulfacetate etc.
  • For eg:- Potassium sodium tartrate also known as Rochelle salt.

Mixed Salts

The salt that consists of a fixed proportion of two salts, often sharing either a common cation or common anion is known as mixed salt. A mixed salt is a salt made from more than one base or acid. For e. g. , sodium potassium sulphate, bleaching powder etc.

For e. g. :-

Normal Salt

Normal salts are electrically neutral. They are formed when acids and bases neutralize, and these salts don՚t have replaceable hydrogen or hydroxyl in their formula. Metallic ions replace the hydrogen ions completely. For e. g. , etc.

Properties of Salt

The compounds sodium chloride has very different properties from the element՚s sodium and chlorine.

  • Saltwater contains ions and is a fairly good conductor of electricity.
  • This electrostatic force of attraction holds the ions together and a chemical bond is said to form between them.
  • Salt is made up of Sodium and Chlorine.
  • Salt has negatively charged ions () and positively charged ions () .
  • Due to their oppositely charged ions, the ions are attracted towards each other with an electrostatic force of attraction which is called an ionic bond.
  • An equal number of opposite charges makes the ionic compounds neutral with no charge.
  • Salt water is a good conductor of electricity.
  • Salts are ionic in nature due to the presence of ions.
  • They are brittle, hard and crystalline solids.
  • Salt is white, odorless and it has a salty taste.
  • All potassium ammonium and sodium salts are soluble in water .
  • Nitrites, nitrates, and bicarbonates can be dissolved in water.
  • All metallic oxides, metallic carbonates, hydroxides, phosphates, and sulphide are insoluble in water.

Hydrolysis of a Salt

  • Hydrolysis of salt refers to the reaction of salt with water. It is the reverse of a neutralization reaction. In this reaction, when salt undergoes reaction with water, the constituent acid and base are formed as products.
  • In hydrolysis, the salt dissociates to form ions, completely or partially depending upon the solubility product of that salt.

Question

What Kind of Salt Consists of a Fixed Proportion of Two Salts?

(A) Mixed salt

(B) Double salt

(C) Complex salt

(D) Normal salt

Ans:

The correct option is ‘a’ . Mixed salt consists of a fixed proportion of two salts, often sharing either a common cation or common anion.

The Acidic Nature and Basic Nature of Some Salt Solutions Can be Explained on the Basis Of

(A) Splitting of a salt compound

(B) Hydrolysis of salts

(C) Both A and B

(D) Only B

Ans. C

The acidic nature and basic nature of some salt solutions can be explained on the basis of hydrolysis of salts. Here, hydrolysis means splitting up of a compound by the action of water.

Which Salt is Used as a Raw Material for Making a Large Number of Useful Chemicals in Industry?

(A) Sodium Chloride

(B) Ammonium Hydroxide

(C) Ammonium Chloride

(D) Sodium Nitrate

Ans. A

Common Salt that is Sodium Chloride is used as a raw material for making a large number of useful chemicals in industry.

Name the Salt when on Dissolving in Water Give an Acidic Solution?

(A) Potassium Chloride

(B) Ammonium Chloride

(C) Sodium Carbonate

(D) Sodium Acetate

Ans. B

Ammonium Chloride salt on dissolving in water gives an acidic solution.

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