Saturated Hydrocarbon, Difference between Saturated and Unsaturated Hydrocarbon (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question

What is the Difference between Saturated Hydrocarbon and Unsaturated Hydrocarbon?

Answer:

A saturated hydrocarbon is the hydrocarbon in which all its carbon-carbon bonds are single. An unsaturated hydrocarbon, however, is the one in which some carbon-carbon bonds can be double or triple. e. g. alkenes like ethene have double bonds while alkynes like ethyne have triple bonds.

What Are the Three Types of Saturated Hydrocarbons?

Answer:

The four major classes of hydrocarbons are the following: the alkanes, which contain only carbon – hydrogen and carbon – carbon single bonds; the alkenes, which contain at least one carbon – carbon double bond; the alkynes, which contain at least one carbon – carbon triple bond; and the aromatic hydrocarbons,

What is a Saturated Hydrocarbon Called?

Answer:

Saturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds between carbon atoms. As a result, each carbon atom is bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as possible. Saturated hydrocarbons are given the general name of alkanes. Ring-shaped hydrocarbons are called cyclic hydro carbons.

Explain the Following with Example

(i) Saturated hydrocarbon

(ii) Denaturation of alcohol

(iii) Displacement reaction

(iv) Combustion of hydrocarbon

(v) Hydrogenation of unsaturated hydrocarbon.

Answer:

  • Saturated hydrocarbons are hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds between carbon atoms. They are the simplest class of hydrocarbons. They are called saturated because each carbon atom is bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as possible. In other words, the carbon atoms are saturated with hydrogen. Example is ethane.
  • Denatured alcohol, also called methylated spirits or denatured rectified spirit, is ethanol that has additives to make it poisonous, bad tasting, foul smelling or nauseating, to discourage recreational consumption. In some cases, it is also dyed. This process is known as Denaturation of alcohol.
  • Displacement reaction is a chemical reaction in which a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from its compound. Both metals and non-metals take part in displacement reactions. Reaction of iron nails with copper sulphate solution.
  • Hydrocarbon combustion refers to the type of reaction where a hydrocarbon reacts with oxygen to create carbon dioxide, water, and heat. Hydrocarbons are molecules consisting of both hydrogen and carbon. They are most famous for being the primary constituent of fossil fuels, namely natural gas, petroleum, and coal. For this reason, fossil fuel resources are often referred to as hydrocarbon resources. Energy is obtained from fossil fuels through combustion (burning) of the fuel.
  • Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum. The process is commonly employed to reduce or saturate organic compounds. Hydrogenation typically constitutes the addition of pairs of hydrogen atoms to a molecule, often an alkene. Catalysts are required for the reaction to be usable; non-catalytic hydrogenation takes place only at very high temperatures. Hydrogenation reduces double and triple bonds in hydrocarbons.

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