Solution-Properties of Solution, Types of Solution, Concentration, Mixture, Saturated Solution and Solubility (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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  • A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more components in which the particle size is smaller than 1 nm.
  • Examples of solutions are the sugar in water and salt in water solutions, soda water, etc. In a solution, all the components appear as a single phase. There is particle homogeneity i.e.. particles are evenly distributed.

Characteristics of Solution

Solutions have two components; one is solvent and the other is solute.


The component that dissolves the other component is called the solvent.


  • The component (s) that is/are dissolved in the solvent is/are called solute (s) .
  • Generally solvent is present in major proportion compared to the solute. The amount of solute is lesser than the solvent. The solute and solvent can be in any state of matter i.e.. solid, liquid and gas.
  • Solutions that are in the liquid state consist of a solid, liquid or gas dissolved in a liquid solvent. Alloys and air are examples of solid and gaseous solutions respectively.

Solution Examples

The following examples illustrate solvent and solute in some solutions.

  • Air is a homogeneous mixture of gases. Here both the solvent and the solute are gases.
  • Sugar syrup is a solution where sugar is dissolved in water using heat. Here, water is the solvent and sugar are the solute.
  • Tincture of iodine, a mixture of iodine in alcohol. Iodine is the solute whereas alcohol is the solvent.

Types of Solution

Liquid solutions, such as sugar in water, are the most common kind, but there are also solutions that are gases or solids. Any state of matter (solid, liquid, or gas) can act both as a solute or as a solvent during the formation of a solution. Therefore, depending upon the physical states of solute and solvent, we can classify in nine different types of solutions.

Types of Solution
Sr. NoTypes of SolutionSoluteSolventExamples
1Solid – SolidSolidSolidAlloys like brass, Bronze etc.
2.Solid – LiquidSolidLiquidThe solution of sugar, salt etc. in water
3.Solid – GasSolidGasSublimation of substances like iodine, camphor etc. into the air.
4.Liquid – SolidLiquidSolidHydrated salts, mercury in amalgamated zinc etc.
5.Liquid – LiquidLiquidLiquidAlcohol in water, benzene in toluene
6.Liquid – gasLiquidGasAerosol, water vapour in the air.
7.Gas – SolidGasSolidHydrogen absorbed in palladium
8.Gas – LiquidGasLiquidAerated drinks
9.Gas – GasGasGasA mixture of gases etc.

Properties of Solution

Different properties of solutions are as follows:

  • It is a homogeneous mixture.
  • Its particles are too tiny and have a diameter less than 1 nm.
  • The particles are not visible to naked eyes.
  • Particles don՚t scatter a beam of light passing through it and hence the path of the light is not visible.
  • Solutes are inseparable from the mixture and do not sediment. A solution is stable.
  • The components of a mixture cannot be separated using filtration.


  • Mixtures are substances that consist of two or more types of matter. Air, soil, blood, etc. are different examples of mixtures. Based on the nature of the components and their distribution, mixtures are classified as homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures.
  • A mixture that has its components uniformly distributed is known as a homogeneous mixture.
  • While if the distribution is non-uniform, the mixture is called a heterogeneous mixture.

Concentration of a Solution

  • The amount of solute in a given solution is called the concentration of a solution. The proportion of solute and solvent in solutions are not even. Depending upon the proportion of solute, a solution can be:
    • Diluted
    • Concentrated
    • Saturated


The Solution Process

  • Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances whose components are uniformly distributed on a microscopic scale. The component present in the greatest amount is the solvent, and the components present in lesser amounts are the solute (s) .
  • The formation of a solution from a solute and a solvent is a physical process, not a chemical one. Substances that are miscible, such as gases, form a single phase in all proportions when mixed. Substances that form separate phases are immiscible.

Saturated Solution and Solubility

  • The solubility of a substance is the maximum amount of a solute that can dissolve in a given quantity of solvent; it depends on the chemical nature of both the solute and the solvent and on the temperature and pressure.
  • When a solution contains the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve under a given set of conditions, it is a saturated solution. Otherwise, it is unsaturated. Supersaturated solutions, which contain more dissolved solute than allowed under particular conditions, are unstable.

Factors Affecting Solubility

  • The solubility of most substances depends strongly on the temperature and, in the case of gases, on the pressure. The solubility of most solid or liquid solutes increases with increasing temperature.
  • The components of a mixture can often be separated using fractional crystallization, which separates compounds according to their solubilities. The solubility of a gas decreases with increasing temperature. Henry՚s law describes the relationship between the pressure and the solubility of a gas.

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