States of Matter: Solid, Liquid, Plasma, Boyle՚S Law, Charles՚ Law (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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States of Matter
  • The intermolecular forces run between the particles of matter.
  • States of matter are forms in which matter exists.
  • There exists a pure electrostatic force between two ions which are oppositely charged.
  • Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. It consists of subatomic particles, atoms, ions, and compounds.
  • The intermolecular forces are different from these pure electrostatic forces.
  • Determining the state of matter is done by the competition between intermolecular interactions and thermal energy.
  • Sometimes these particles are tightly bound and close together, while other times particles are loosely connected and widely separated.
  • Various properties of matter in bulk, such as a change in state, characteristics of liquids and solids, gases behavior depends on two factors:
    • The interaction type between them
    • The energy of constituent particles
  • The change of state does not affect the chemical properties of a substance, but the change in the physical state affects the reactivity.

Solid

  • It is a state of matter with a defined shape and volume.
  • Atoms, ions, and molecules in a solid pack tightly together and may form crystals. Examples of solids include rocks, ice, diamond, and wood.

Liquid

  • It is a state of matter with a defined volume, but no defined shape. In other words, liquids take the shape of their container.
  • Particles in a liquid have more energy than in a solid, so they are further apart and less organized (more random) .
  • Examples of liquids include water, juice, and vegetable oil.

Gas

  • It is a state of matter lacking either a defined volume or defined shape. Like a liquid, a gas takes the shape of a container.
  • Unlike a liquid, a gas easily expands or contracts to fill the entire volume of the container.
  • Particles in a gas have more energy than in solids or liquids.
  • Examples of gases include air, water vapor, and helium.

Plasma

  • Plasma is a state of matter like a gas, except all the particles carry an electrical charge.
  • It tends to exist at very low pressure, so the particles are even further apart than in a gas.
  • It can consist of ions, electrons, or protons.
  • Examples of plasma include lightning, the aurora, the Sun, and the inside of a neon sign.

Boyle՚S Law

  • Charles՚s Law states that the volume of a given mass of gas is directly proportional to the absolute temperature at constant pressure.
  • Boyle՚s law, also referred to as the Boyle – Mariotte law, or Mariotte՚s law, is an experimental gas law that describes how the pressure of a gas tends to increase as the volume of the container decreases.
  • It is expressed as PV = k where P is pressure, V is volume and k are constant. This law is also referred to as the Boyle-Mariotte law or Mariotte՚s law.

Boyle՚S Law

The Boyle՚S Law

Charle՚S Law

  • Charles՚s Law states that the volume of a given mass of gas is inversely proportional to the absolute pressure at a constant temperature.
  • Charles՚s law is an experimental gas law that describes how gases tend to expand when heated.
  • It is expressed as V/T = k where V is the volume of gas, T is the temperature of the gas, and k is constant.
  • A modern statement of Charles՚s law is: When the pressure on a sample of a dry gas is held constant, the Kelvin temperature and the volume will be in direct proportion.
  • The temperature is measured in Kelvin scale. This law is also termed as the law of volumes.
The Charle՚S Law