Synthetic Fibres, Classification of Synthetic Fibers, Examples, Advantages, Disadvantages

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What is Synthetic Fibre?

  • Synthetic fibres are made only from polymers found in natural gas and the by-products of petroleum.
  • Synthetic fibres are man-made fibres, most of them are prepared from raw material petroleum called petrochemicals. All fabrics are obtained from fibres, while fibres are obtained from artificial or man-made sources.
  • They consist of a small unit or a polymer which is made from many repeating units known as monomers. They include nylon, acrylics, polyurethane, and polypropylene.

Classification of Synthetic Fibers

Following are some of the most commonly used synthetic fibres: Know more about Classifications of Fibers

Synthetic Fibres Examples

  • Man-made fibres like silk have always been greatly valued for its gloss and fineness. Man-made fibres are smooth. Examples are
    • rayon
    • nylon
    • polyester
  • This fibre finds its applications in household articles like ropes, bucket, furniture, etc.


  • This is a type of synthetic fibre obtained from wood pulp.
  • Rayon fabric is soft, absorbent and comfortable.
  • It is easy to dye in a wide range of colors.
  • Rayon is mixed with cotton to make bedsheets.
  • Rayon is mixed with wool to make carpets.


  • This type of synthetic fibre is obtained from coal, water and air.
  • Nylon is very lustrous, easy to wash and elastic.
  • It dries quickly and retains its shape.
  • Nylon finds its application in seat belts of car, sleeping bags, socks, ropes, etc.
  • Nylon is also used in ropes for rock climbing, making parachutes and fishing nets.


  • This type of synthetic fibre is obtained from coal, water, air and petroleum.
  • Polyester is made from repeating units of a chemical known as esters.
  • Polyester is easy to wash and it remains wrinkle-free and it is quite suitable in making dress material.
  • Polyester retains its shape and remains crisp.
  • Polyester is used in making ropes, nets, raincoats, jackets, etc.

Advantages of Synthetic Fibres

  • Synthetic fibres are very durable and do not wrinkle easily
  • They are elastic and can be easily stretched out
  • They are strong and can sustain the heavy load.
  • They are soft and hence used in clothing material.
  • They are cheaper as compared to natural fibres.
  • Synthetic fibers have good elasticity.
  • They don՚t wrinkle up easily.
  • Fabrics made from these fibres are less expensive, durable and readily available in comparison to natural fibers.
  • Synthetic fibers can handle the heavy load without breaking.
  • They don՚t shrink.
  • Synthetic fibers blend well with other fibres.
  • They՚re very absorbent.

Disadvantages of Synthetic Fibres

  • Most synthetic fibres do not absorb moisture.
  • Synthetic fibre can be affected if washed using hot water.
  • They catch fire easily as compared to natural fibre.
  • Synthetic fibers require attention while ironing since they tend to melt away easily.
  • Most of these fibres absorb very little. So, they stick to the body while sweating on hot summer days. Thus, making it uncomfortable to wear during such days.
  • Synthetic fibers are prone to catch fire very easily.
  • These fibres are non-biodegradable.


How Synthetic Fibres Are Made?


Synthetic fibers are made from small molecules synthesized polymers. The substances used to produce such fibers are extracted from raw materials such as chemicals based on petroleum or petrochemicals. Such materials are polymerized into a chemical that ties together two adjacent atoms of carbon.

What Are the Uses of Synthetic Fibres?


It is used in the manufacture of ropes, nets for fishing and seat belts. Polyester – This fabric is made from coal and oil and is wrinkle-free and easy to clean. It is used for the production of caps, raincoats, and ropes.

What Are the Disadvantages of Synthetic Fibres?


Like natural fibers, synthetic fibers do not easily take up colors. These fibers can burn faster than natural fibers. They are prone to damage to heat and easily melt.

What Are the Types of Synthetic Fibre?


For example, man-made synthetic fibers such as rayon, nylon, acrylic, etc. A Synthetic Fiber is a string of a combination of small units of chemical substance.

What is the Characteristic of Synthetic Fibre?


Synthetic fibers are more durable: they have bright wear and tear resistance. Because of this, synthetic fiber fabric is very durable. Such fibers have a high luster, and with age, they don՚t turn yellow.

… Or … Fibre is Another Name for Synthetic Fibres

(A) Man – made

(B) Artificial

(C) Both A and B

(D) None of these

Answer: (C)


Synthetic fibres are fibres which human beings prepare using chemicals. Small units that join together to form long chains make up these fibres. Hence the right options are artificial and man-made.