The D-And F-Block Elements: The Metallic Properties Exhibited (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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D and F Block Elements
  • The middle layer of the periodic table is filled with d block elements.
  • The d-block elements are found in the middle of the period table.
  • The d-block elements are called transition metals and have valence electrons in d orbitals.
  • The inner d orbits of group 3 to group 13 are filled progressively. On the other hand, f block elements are found outside at the bottom of the periodic table.
  • The d and f block elements hold certain properties, which make them fall into the category.
  • The f-block elements, found in the two rows at the bottom of the periodic table, are called inner transition metals and have valence electrons in the f-orbital.
  • In these elements, 5-f and 4-f orbitals are filled progressively.
  • Three series of transition elements are recognized by the filling of 3-d, 4-d, 5-d orbitals.
  • In the transition elements, the last electron usually enters the penultimate d orbitals i.e.. (n-1) d orbitals and that is why they are called d-block elements in the modern periodic table.
  • The general valence shell configurations of every transition elements are (n-1) d-1 – 10. ns-0,1, 2.
  • They have high boiling and melting point.
  • 40 elements are present in d-block.
  • The metallic properties exhibited by the transition elements are
  • Electrical conductivity
  • Malleability
  • Thermal conductivity
  • High tensile strength
  • Metallic character
  • Ductility
  • The elements of the f block of the periodic table are two series of inner transition elements, actinoids, and lanthanoids.
  • Due to the successive filling of the inner orbitals i.e.. , 4-f, the atomic and ionic sizes of these metals along the series gradually decreases.
  • Lanthanoids are soft white metals and easily react with water.
  • Their principal oxidation state is + 3. + 2 and + 4 are also exhibited occasionally.
  • Actinoid elements are radioactive and their chemistry is complicated.
  • Some applications of d- and f-block elements are in the organic syntheses, catalysts, etc.