Uses of Hydrogen, Properties of Hydrogen, Reaction, Other Elements, Questions (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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What is Hydrogen?

  • Hydrogen is a unique element of the periodic table due to its resemblance to alkali metals and the halogens.
  • Hydrogen is the first element of the periodic table and due to its uniqueness, it is placed separately.

Properties of Hydrogen

There are many uses of hydrogen because of its dual nature and hence this element is very popular in the chemical industry. So, let us have a look at its properties and find the reasons for its dual character:

Physical Properties of Hydrogen

The hydrogen gas is colorless, odorless and tasteless in nature. It is a combustible gas but not a supporter of combustion. It is lighter than air and insoluble in water. It has an atomic mass of 1.008 amu and an ionization enthalpy of .

Chemical Properties of Hydrogen

  • Chemical properties are largely determined by the bond disassociation enthalpy. Hydrogen molecule forms H-H bond, and this single bond has the highest bond enthalpy between two atoms of an element. Hydrogen is inert at room temperature due to its high bond enthalpy and, therefore, it is prepared at very high temperatures in an electric arc or under ultraviolet radiations.
  • Hydrogen has an electronic configuration of , and so it can react either by losing an electron and forming an ion, or gaining an electron and forming an H ion. Hydrogen shares electrons with other elements and forms a covalent bond.
Hydrogen Electronic Configuration

Hydrogen Electronic Configuration

Reaction of Hydrogen with Other Elements

Let us move on to the reaction of hydrogen with other elements:

Reactions with the Halogen Family

Hydrogen reacts with halogens elements to give hydrogen halides. For example:

Reaction with the Oxygen Molecule

Hydrogen reacts with the oxygen molecule to form water. This reaction is highly exothermic in nature.

Reaction with Metals

Hydrogen reacts with different metals to form their respective hydrides.

Here M represents the alkali metals.

Uses of Hydrogen

  • Hydrogen finds a variety of application due to its dual nature. Following are some important uses of hydrogen:
    • Hydrogen is used in the synthesis of ammonia and the manufacture of nitrogenous fertilizers.
    • Hydrogenation of unsaturated vegetable oils for manufacturing vanaspati fat.
    • It is used in the manufacture of many organic compounds, for example, methanol.
    • Hydrogen chloride is a very useful chemical and is prepared from hydrogen.
    • Hydrogen can reduce many metal oxides to metals by metallurgical processes.
    • Hydrogen is used as rocket fuel in many space research activities.
    • Hydrogen fuel is being experimented within the automotive industry with hydrogen fuel cells.
  • Hydrogen also has many other uses. In the chemical industry it is used to make ammonia for agricultural fertilizer (the Haber process) and cyclohexane and methanol, which are intermediates in the production of plastics and pharmaceuticals. It is also used to remove sulfur from fuels during the oil-refining process.


Why Do We Need Hydrogen?


Hydrogen is a significant water element. The body՚s cells remain hydrated due to water and help remove toxins from the body. Hydrogen enables the body to produce energy.

Who Discovered Hydrogen?

Answer: In 1671, while experimenting with iron and acids, Robert Boyle produced hydrogen gas, but it wasn՚t until 1766 that, according to Jefferson Lab, Henry Cavendish acknowledged it as a separate component. The French chemist Antoine Lavoisier called the element hydrogen

How Does Hydrogen Exist in Nature?

Answer: Hydrogen happens mainly in the form of water on Earth. Each water molecule () includes two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen.

What is the Formula for Hydrogen Gas?

Answer: Hydrogen with molecular formula is a colorless, odorless, non-metallic, tasteless, extremely flammable diatomic gas.

What is the Symbol of Hydrogen Gas?

Answer: The atomic symbol of hydrogen is H and its atomic number is one. Hydrogen is an atomic-numbered chemical element 1. Hydrogen is a colorless, odorless, non-metallic, tasteless, extremely flammable diatomic gas with molecular formula at standard temperature and pressure.

What Are the Main Uses of Hydrogen?


Hydrogen: Uses

  • commercial fixation of nitrogen from the air in the Haber ammonia process.
  • hydrogenation of fats and oils.
  • methanol production, in hydrodealkylation, hydrocracking, and hydrodesulphurization.
  • rocket fuel.
  • welding.
  • production of hydrochloric acid.
  • reduction of metallic ores.

What Are 5 Physical Properties of Hydrogen?


The Physical Properties of Hydrogen are as follows:

  • Color: Colorless.
  • Phase: Gas: Hydrogen changes from a gas to a liquid at a temperature of It changes from a liquid to a solid at a temperature of -
  • Odor: Hydrogen is an odorless gas.
  • Taste: A tasteless gas.

What Are 4 Properties of Hydrogen?


At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen is a colourless, odourless, tasteless, non-toxic, non-metallic, highly combustible diatomic gas with the molecular formula . Since hydrogen readily forms covalent compounds with most non-metallic elements, most of the hydrogen on Earth exists in molecular forms such as water.

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