What is P-Block Elements? Periodic Table, Properties of P-Block Metals, Properties of P-Block Metalloids (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Periodic Table

The Periodic Table is a chart which includes all the known elements according to their atomic numbers. Different columns in the periodic table are known as groups and rows are called as periods. The elements which are placed left to the periodic table are metals and elements which are on the right are known as non-metals. All the metals are solid at room temperature and non-metals are liquid or gaseous. Metalloids include properties of both the metal and non-metals.

Periodic Table

P-Block Elements

  • The p-block exists on the right side of the periodic table which includes elements from six columns, starts with 3A column and ends with 8A Column. Helium which is placed at the top of column 8A is not included in the p-block. The p-block elements are united as their valence electrons are in p orbital.
  • This orbital contains six-lobed shapes that are coming from a central point at evenly spaced angles. It holds a maximum of 6 electrons and hence there are six columns in the p-block. The first column of p-block where elements in column 3A have one valence electron. And in column 4A, the 2nd column has two valence electrons. This trend continues till we reach to the column 8A which has 6 valence electrons.
  • P block elements are nothing but the element in which the last electron enters the outermost p-subshell. P block starts from the 13th group and goes till 18th group in the periodic table.
  • You must have seen that coal is used in villages to cook food. It is nothing but a P-block element i.e.. , carbon. Diamonds are used for making beautiful ornaments are also made up of carbon. Aluminium foil made up of aluminium is also made up of the p block element.

Properties of P-Block Metals

  • These metals have classical metal characteristics that they are shiny, good conductors of heat and electricity and also, they lose electrons. They have high melting points and react with non-metals to form ionic compounds. When ion bonds of a positive metal react with negative non-metal ions, ionic compounds are formed.
  • Gallium is placed in the third row of column 3A is a metal that can easily melt on the palm of your hand. Tin exists in the 4th row of column 4A and is flexible, abundant and useful metal. It is an important component as many other metal alloys – solder, pewter, and bronze.

Properties of P-Block Metalloids

  • Metalloids include properties of both the metals and nonmetals. Elements that are recognized as metalloids are placed in the p-block such as germanium, silicon, arsenic, and tellurium. Silicon is the popular metalloid and is the second most abundant element on the Earth.
  • Also, used to make microchips for computers and different electronic devices. Germanium includes similar properties to Silicon.

Properties of P-Block Non-Metal

Many of the p-block elements are nonmetals which have low boiling points. These are poor conductors of electricity and do not lose electrons. Some non-metals are solid at room temperature while others are gases. There is one non-metal in the p-block element, bromine which is liquid at room temperature.

Characteristics of P-Block Elements

  • The general electronic configuration of p-block elements is (except He) . Whereas the inner core electronic configuration may differ. Just because of this difference the inner core, there are changes in both physical and chemical properties of the elements.
  • The oxidation state of elements in p – block is maximum when it is equal to a total number of valence electrons i.e.. , the sum of S and P electrons. p-block elements contains both non-metals and metalloids.
  • The first member of the p block elements differs from other elements in two major respects:
    • First is the size and each and every property which depends upon the size.
    • The second difference applies only to the p-block element which arises from the effects of d-orbitals in the valence shell of heavier elements.

Questions

What is the P Block Elements?

Answer:

  • The p-block is the region of the periodic table that includes columns 3A to column 8A and does not include helium.
  • There are 35 p-block elements, all of which are in p orbital with valence electrons. The p-block elements are a group of very diverse elements with a wide range of properties.

Why Are They Called P Block Elements?

Answer:

  • The elements s-block and p-block are so-called because their valence electrons are either in an orbital s or p.
  • These are often called Standard Components, in order to differentiate them from the sequence of transformation and internal transformation.

What Are the Properties of Non-Metals?

Answer:

  • Usually, non-metal is brittle when it is solid and typically has low thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity. Chemically, non-metals tend to have relatively high energy from ionization, contact with electrons, and electronegativity.
  • As they react with other elements and chemical compounds, they receive or exchange the electrons.

What is the General Electronic Configuration of P Block Elements?

Answer:

The general electronic external configuration for p block components is is the general electronic outer configuration of d block components. The general electronic outer F block element configuration is .

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