# Capacitor-Types of Capacitor and Capacitance: What is a Capacitor? (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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# Title: Capacitor - Types of Capacitor and Capacitance

## What is a Capacitor?

• The capacitor is a device in which electrical energy can be stored.
• It is an arrangement of two-conductor generally carrying charges of equal magnitudes and opposite sign and separated by an insulating medium.
• It is a passive electronic component with two terminals.
• The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance.
• Capacitor vary in shape and size, they have many important applications in electronics.

## Use of Capacitors

Capacitors have many uses in electronic and electrical systems:

• Storing electric potential energy
• Filtering out unwanted frequency signals
• Delaying voltage changes when coupled with resistors.
• One of the conductors has a positive charge + Q and it is at potential + V. whereas the other has an equal negative charge, -Q and is at potential – V.

They are so ubiquitous that it is rare that an electrical product does not include at least one for some purpose.

## Charge on Capacitor

Total charge/the net charge on the capacitor is .

## Capacitance

• The charge on the capacitor (Q) is directly proportional to the potential difference (V) between the plates

• The constant of proportionality (C) is termed as the capacitance of the capacitor.
• Unit of Capacitance: Farad (F)
• Dimensional Formula:

## Factors Affecting the Capacitance

• Shape and size of the conductor
• Medium between them
• Presence of other conductors near it.

## Types of Capacitor

### Parallel Plate Capacitor

• The parallel plate capacitor is the simplest form of capacitor.
• It can be constructed using two metal or metallized foil plates at a distance parallel to each other, with its capacitance value in Farads, being fixed by the surface area of the conductive plates and the distance of separation between them.