Circuit Components, Types of Electronic Components Used in Circuits (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Circuit Components

  • Now as we know, electricity is one of the most convenient ways of the transfer of energy, but electronic circuit components are the physical entity in an electronic system.
  • Electricity has been adapted for a huge and growing number of uses in our everyday life.
  • whether it to power our devices such as bulbs, fans, air conditioners, electric irons, washing machines or charging our batteries, mobile phones etc.
  • We cannot survive without them.
Circuit Components

Just by looking at the diagram we cannot understand the working of the circuit, as the components are still new to us. Let us find out what these symbols stand for.

Types of Electronic Components Used in Circuits (Circuit Components)

  • Active circuit elements
  • Passive circuit elements
  • Active circuit elements

Some basic circuit components which are used in an electronic system is given below.


A Cell is a Device
  • A cell is a device used to power electrical circuits.
  • It has two terminals; positive and negative.
  • The terminal marked negative is the source of electrons, that when connected to a circuit delivers energy.
  • As an example: normal torch battery.
  • A battery is a combination of multiple cells. If we take a closer look at it, we can see positive and negative marks.
  • The same marks are present on the torch we put our batteries into.
  • When one inserts the battery into their devices matching these signs, we complete a circuit and that are how the circuit gets its power.
  • Once the reserve of an excess electron inside the cells is over, the delivery of energy stops and the circuit breaks.
  • So, the device connected to the circuit, such as a bulb, stops working. Batteries come in various shapes and sizes, starting from the miniature batteries used in hearing aids and watches, torch, and mobile batteries to lead-acid batteries used in cars and to power inverters.


A Switch is a Device
  • A switch is a device that can break an electrical circuit by diverting the current from one conductor to other conductor or an insulator.
  • These set of contacts are termed as open and closed.
  • Open circuit means that the contacts are separated and the circuit is broken, so current is not flowing.
  • Whereas closed circuit means that the contacts are touching, the circuit is complete and the current is flowing.
  • Switches are of many types and are used depending upon the device we are using.

Light Bulb

A Light Bulb
  • A light bulb is a device that produces light from electricity.
  • It turns the electricity to light by sending current through a thin wire called filament.
  • The filament is usually made of tungsten, a material that emits light when electricity is passed through it.
  • The emission of light is due to the high resistance offered by the material tungsten, which we will learn in higher classes.
  • Apart from lighting, the bulbs are used in electronic items as an indicator, traffic signals, indicator lights in cars etc.

Connecting Wires

Connecting Wires
  • A wire is a flexible strand of metal, usually cylindrical in shape. It is used for establishing electrical conductivity between two devices of an electrical circuit.
  • They possess negligible resistance to the passage of current. These are covered by an insulated coating of different colors.
  • The color codes are used to distinguish between neutral and ground, and live wire, which differs from one country to another.

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