Density of Water, Some Properties of Water, Definition of Density of Water (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Density of Water

  • Water is a tasteless, transparent, odorless, and colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of this planet՚s lakes, oceans, streams, and the fluids of most living organisms.
  • Density is the mass per unit volume of a substance.

Some Properties of Water

Some Properties of Water
Density:997 kg/
Molar Mass:18.01528 g/mol
Boiling Point:
Melting Point:

Definition of Density of Water

  • The density of a material is defined as its mass per unit volume. It՚s a measurement of how tightly matter is packed together.
  • It is of a substance can be explained as the relationship between the mass of the substance and volume it takes up.
  • Definition: It is the weight of the water per its unit volume, which depends on the temperature of the water.

Factors Affecting Water Density

  • There are so many factors which can affect the density of a substance.
  • Some factors which affect the density of water is given as below.
    • The density of water is approximately around about 1 gram/cubic centimeter (1 g/) .
    • It is temperature-dependent, but this relation is said to be non- linear and it is uni modal in nature rather than monotonic.
    • When it is cooled from the room temperature, the liquid water tends to become increasingly dense, as with another kind of substances, but approximately at about , pure water is said to reach its maximum density.
    • As it gets cooled further, it tends to expand and becomes less dense. This kind of unusual negative thermal expansion is related to strong, intermolecular forces, orientation-dependent, or interactions and it is observed in the form of molten silica.

Density vs Temperature

  • Water does not have an absolute density as its density varies with temperature.
  • It has a higher density in the liquid state than the solid.
  • Check the Density VS Temperature Graph given below to understand how density changes with temperature.

Density vs Temperature Graph

Density vs Temperature Graph

Expression of Density

Density is the ratio of the mass to the volume of a substance:

where ρ = density, units typically or

m = mass, units typically or

V = volume, units typically or

Pure water has its highest density 1000 kg/ or 1.940 slug/ at temperature () .

Specific weight is the ratio of the weight to the volume of a substance:



m = mass, units typically or

g = acceleration due to gravity, units typically and value on Earth usually given as V = volume, units typically

density, units typically

Density of Water at Various Temperature Scales

The water density varies for different temperature. The density (in kg/) of water for different temperature scale (ranging from to ) is given in the table below.

Different Temperature Scale

Different Temperature Scale
TemperatureDensity in kg/
-30 983.854

Density of Several Liquids with Different Specific Gravities

Density of Several Liquids with Different Specific Gravities
MaterialDensity (gram/cm3)
Rubbing Alcohol0.79
Lamp Oil0.8
Baby Oil0.83
Liquid Soap1.06
Corn Syrup1.33
Maple Syrup1.37

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