Electronic Communication and Its Terminology, Basic Components of Electronic Communication (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Electronic Communication and Its Terminology

Electronic Communication Systems- Basic Terminology

Electronic communications are the transmission, reception, and processing of information between two or more locations with the use of electronic circuits.

Basic Components of Electronic Communication

Basic Components of Electronic Communication
  • The basic components of electronic communications system are:
    • The transmitter
    • Communications channel or medium
    • Receiver
    • Noise.
  • Analog signals (such human voice) or digital signals (binary data) are inputted to the system, processed in the electronic circuits for transmission, and then decoded by the receiver.
  • This system is said to be reliable and effective only when errors are minimized in the process.


  • Information converted into an electrical form suitable for transmission is known as a signal.
  • There are two types of signals;
    • Analog
    • Digital
  • Analog signals are continuous variations of current and voltage whereas digital signals are those that have discrete stepwise value (0 = Low, 1 = High)


  • Any device that converts one form of energy into another can be known as a transducer.
  • In a communication system, it mainly refers to a device that converts a physical variable (pressure, sound, force, temperature, etc.) into its respective electrical signal and gives it as an output.
  • A mechanical input is changed into a format which can be understood by the electrical system.


The loss of quality and strength of the signal while travelling through the channel/medium during electronic communication is called as attenuation.


  • Amplification is the process of increasing the amplitude of a signal using an electrical circuit.
  • Amplitude refers to the strength of the signal.
  • An electronic circuit used for amplification is called an amplifier.
  • Whenever the distance between the source and receiver becomes very large such that the signals reaching the receiver are too weak, the addition of an amplifier in between the two can ensure that the receiver receives strong signals.


Bandwidth is the frequency range over which the signal is transmitted or the range over which the equipment operates.


  • Most of the information/messages are generated at low frequencies but such frequencies experience heavy attenuation and hence their range is severely hampered.
  • To solve this problem, the original low-frequency information is superimposed on a high-frequency carrier wave which carries the information.
  • This process is called modulation and there are several types of it, namely AM, FM and PM.


  • The process of extraction of the original information from the modulated signal at the receiver is termed as demodulation.
  • This process is called the reverse of modulation.


  • It is a combination of a transmitter and a receiver.
  • It picks up the signals transmitted by the transmitter, amplifies, and then re-transmits it.
  • In doing so, it is both receiving and transmitting.
  • Repeaters are mostly used to extend the range of an electronic communication system.
  • The electronic age has heralded an unprecedented growth of mankind and its exploration has yielded wonders after wonders.

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