Oscillations: What Are Oscillations, What Are the Three Main Types of Simple Harmonic Motion (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

Doorsteptutor material for competitive exams is prepared by world's top subject experts: get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of your exam.

  • It is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.
  • The term vibration is precisely used to describe mechanical oscillation.

What Are Oscillations?

What Are Oscillations
  • It is a measure of some repetitive variation, as a function of time.
  • It can be measured with respect to a state of equilibrium.
  • Most common and simplest example for oscillation is the motion of a simple pendulum.

What Are the Three Main Types of Simple Harmonic Motion?

  • Three main types of simple harmonic motion in physics are
  • Free Oscillation
  • Forced Oscillation
  • Damped Oscillations

Free Oscillation

  • Amplitude and time period remains constant without any influence of external factors.
  • When the system has zero damping, the amplitude remains constant provided, this theory is possible in cases where damping always occurs.
  • To overcome external forces like air resistance or friction, the reduction in amplitude (energy loss of a system) is referred to as damping.
  • The amplitude, frequency, and energy all remain constant.

Forced Oscillation

  • When an external periodic force influences a body՚s oscillation, then it is called forced oscillation. Damping occurs in the amplitude of oscillation but remains constant with the help of the external energy supplied by the system.
  • As an example, constantly pushing a swing so that its oscillation doesn՚t reduce.

Damped Oscillation

Damped Oscillation
  • The reduction of the amplitude of an object with respect to time, such type of oscillations is known as damped oscillations.
  • The energy of a system decreases with the decrease in amplitude.
  • There are two types of damping:
  • Natural Damping
  • Artificial Damping

Resonance

  • It is the phenomenon wherein an external vibrating system causes the oscillation of another system with higher amplitude at a particular frequency.
  • Frequency at that particular resonance level is known as a resonant frequency.
  • When tuning a guitar with the help of another guitar, the resonant frequency can be observed. In this case, the amplitude of the vibration of the string is the highest.
  • Reason for large amplitude oscillations generated at that resonant frequencies are as a result of vibrational energy that is accumulated in the system.
  • Resonance is of the following types
  • Mechanical
  • Acoustic
  • Orbital
  • Particle
  • Electrical
  • Optical Resonance

Developed by: