Particle Physics, Modern Particle Physics, Standard Model, Theoretical Particle Physics (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Particle Physics

  • Particle physics is a branch of physics that studies the elementary constituents of matter and radiation, and the interactions between them.
  • The word particle can refer to various types of very small objects, but this branch usually investigates the irreducibly smallest detectable particles.
  • It is also called as “high energy physics” because many elementary particles do not occur under normal circumstances in nature, but can be created and detected during energetic collisions of other particles, as is done in particle accelerators.

Modern Particle Physics

  • The modern particle physics research is focused on subatomic particles with less structure than atoms.
  • Strictly speaking, the term particle is a misnomer because the dynamics of particle physics are governed by quantum mechanics.
  • These atomic constituents such as particles of electrons, protons, and neutrons produced by radioactive and scattering processes.

Standard Model

Standard Model
  • This model of particle physics is a theory related to the electromagnetic, nuclear interactions and classifying the subatomic particles.
  • This model was developed in the latter half of the 20th century, as a collaborative effort of scientists around the world.
  • The development of it was driven by a theoretical and experimental particle
  • The Standard Model has 61 elementary particles.
  • The standard model contains 24 fundamental fermions, includes 12 particles and their associated antiparticles, which are the constituents of mater.
  • In 2012, the standard model predicts the existence of Higgs Boson, which was known as the last piece.
  • Though, recently a particle named as God՚s particle is found that is consistent with the Higgs Boson particle and has stepped forward in the completion of the standard model of particle physics.

Theoretical Particle Physics

  • Theoretical physics is a branch of physics which employs mathematical models and abstractions of physical objects and systems to rationalize, explain and predict natural phenomena.
  • Though, there are several efforts being made in theoretical particle physics, in an attempt to develop the models, theoretical framework, and mathematical tools to understand current experiments and make predictions for future experiments.


  • Particle physics is used to produce medical isotopes which are used in the PET imaging and external beam radiotherapy.
  • Helps to achieve the concept of a superconductor.
  • Touch screen technologies and the World Wide Web were developed at CERN institute for particle physics.
  • Some of other fields that use particle physics are workforce development, medicine, industries, science, and national security etc.

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