NCERT Class 11-Biology: Chapter – 14 Respiration in Plants Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1:

Energy is released during the oxidation of compounds in respiration.

How is this energy stored and released as and when it is needed?

Answer:

The energy which gets released during the oxidation of compounds in respiration is stored as Adenosine Triphosphate i.e.. , . The is stored in the form of chemical bonds. Inorganic phosphorous When energy is required then, this bond energy is broken and utilised energy.

Question 2:

Explain the term “Energy Currency.” Which substance acts as energy currency in plants and animals?

Answer:

Energy cannot be used directly, and the body needs to store and adequately spend the energy. The energy currency is the energy which is stored and released in living organisms. Adenosine Triphosphate, i.e.. , ATP acts as energy currency in plants and animals.

Question 3:

Different substrates get oxidized during respiration. How does Respiratory Quotient (RQ) indicate which type of substrate, i.e.. , carbohydrate, fat or protein is getting oxidized?

What do A and B stand for?

What type of substrates have R. Q. of ?

Answer:

Respiratory Quotient (RQ) indicate which type of substrate, i.e.. , carbohydrate, fat or protein is getting oxidized by measuring the volume of carbon dioxide, i.e.. , released or evolved by the volume of oxygen consumed. It is a unitless quantity. The ratio helps in determining the type of substrate.

A stands for volume of carbon dioxide, i.e.. , released or evolved.

B stands for the volume of oxygen consumed.

less than or protein.

equal to carbohydrate like glucose.

RQ higher than substrate can be organic acid like malic acid.

Question 4:

particles participate in the synthesis of ________.

Answer:

The particles are present in the inner mitochondrial matrix. The particle is a peripheral membrane protein complex, and it has the site for the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

Question 5:

When does anaerobic respiration occur in man and yeast?

Answer:

Anaerobic respiration occurs in man when there is intensive exercise or stress on a muscle which leads to inadequate oxygen in the cells, the pyruvic acid gets reduced to lactic acid, and this is known as homolactic fermentation.

Anaerobic respiration occurs in yeasts when there occurs incomplete oxidation of glucose, and there isn՚t any presence of oxygen, i.e.. , anaerobic conditions. The pyruvic acid is reduced into , i.e.. , Ethanol and release . This is known as alcoholic fermentation.

Question 6:

Which of the following will release more energy on oxidation? Arrange them in ascending order.

a. of fat

b. of protein

c. of glucose

d. of protein glucose

Answer:

The caloric value of

The caloric value of

The caloric value of glucose which is a carbohydrate is

And caloric value of of

Therefore, arranging them in ascending order based on their oxidation energy:

Question 7:

The product of aerobic glycolysis in skeletal muscle and anaerobic fermentation in yeast are respectively ________ and ________.

Answer:

The product of glycolysis (under hypoxia) in skeletal muscle Is lactic acid while anaerobic fermentation in yeast are ethanol and carbon dioxide i.e.. , and .

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1:

If a person is feeling dizzy, glucose or fruit juice is given immediately but not a cheese sandwich, which might have more energy. Explain.

Answer:

If a person is feeling dizzy, glucose or fruit juice is given immediately but not a cheese sandwich because:

(i) Glucose or fruit juice is a simpler food product which is easily absorbed and assimilated by the body and it is easily oxidized to form energy.

(ii) Cheese sandwich would take time for absorption and energy conversion.