NCERT Class 11-Biology: Chapter –18 Body Fluids and Circulation Part 7

Doorsteptutor material for IMO Class-11 is prepared by world's top subject experts: fully solved questions with step-by-step explanation- practice your way to success.

Download PDF of This Page (Size: 117K)

Question 3:

Explain different types of blood groups and donor compatibility by making a table.

Answer:

1. There are two types of blood grouping which are ABO and Rh.

2. ABO grouping is based on the presence or absence of two antigens on the RBC’s which are A and B.

3. These are three alleles and .

4. Gene Codes for blood group A

5. Gene Codes for blood group B.

6. Gene Codes for blood group O.

7. Gene Codes for blood group AB.

8. People with blood group A, have antigen A on the surface of the RBC’s and produce antibodies against blood group B.

9. People with blood group B have antigen B on the surface of the RBC’s and produce antibodies against blood group A.

10. People with blood group AB have antigen A and B on the surface of the RBC’s and produce no antibodies.

11. People with blood group O have no antigens on the surface of RBC’s and produce antibodies against both A and B blood group.

People with Blood Group O
People with blood group O

Blood Group

Alleles

Antigenon RBC surface

Antibodies against

Donate blood to

Receive Blood from

A

A

B

A & AB

A & O

B

B

A

B & AB

B & O

AB

A&B

None

AB

AB, A,B & O

O

None

A & B

A, B & AB

O

13. This shows that blood group AB is a universal recipient and blood group O is a universal donor.

Question 4:

Write short note on the following

a. Hypertension

b. Coronary Artery Disease

Answer:

a. Hypertension:

It is the condition in which there is a constant increase in the normal blood pressure.It affects all the vital organs like heart, kidney and brain etc. Blood pressure equal to or above is considered hypertension.

Types of Hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: It is also known as Idiopathic Hypertension because the specific cause of the increased blood pressure is not known.

2. Secondary Hypertension: It is the type of hypertension with a known cause.

Risk Factors:

1. Alcohol

2. Diabetes

3. Obesity

4. Smoking

5. Excessive Sodium Intake

Prevention:

1. Increased intake of water.

2. Decreased intake of sodium or table salt.

3. Stress and Caffeine should be avoided.

b. Coronary Artery Disease:

Narrowing of the arterial lumen due to the build-up of fats and cholesterol which decreases the supply of oxygen to the body organs. It may also lead to the damaging of heart muscles.

Risk Factors:

1. Obesity

2. Smoking

3. Excess fat intake

4. Hereditary

Prevention:

1. Regular exercise

2. Eating healthy

3. Vitamin supplement

4. Aspirins or blood thinners

Developed by: