NCERT Class 11-Biology: Chapter –22 Chemical Coordination and Integration Part 7

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Question 5:

Hypothalamus is a super master endocrine gland. Elaborate.

Answer:

Hypothalamus is a super master endocrine gland as it secretes hormones that regulate the synthesis and secretion of pituitary gland which is master gland. The hypothalamus is connected to the anterior lobe of pituitary gland by hypophysial portal veins. The hormones secreted by hypothalamus are:

1. Adrenocorticoicotropic releasing hormone (ARH) or corticotrophin releasing hormone- It stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to secrete its adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTC)

2. Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) - It stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to release its growth hormone. (GH)

3. Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) - It stimulates the anterior lobe of pituitary gland to secrete its thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) or Thyrotropin.

4. Growth hormone inhibitory hormone (GHIH)-This hormone is called somatisation (SS). It inhibits the secretion of growth hormone from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.

5. Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) - It stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to secret two gonadotropic hormone. Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinising hormone (LH).

6. Prolactin inhibitory hormone (PIH)-It inhibits the secretion of prolactin from the anterior lobe of pituitary gland.

7. Prolactinrelasing hormone (PRH) - It stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to secrete its prolactin hormone.

8. MSH releasing hormone (MSHRH) – It stimulates the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland to secrete its melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH).

9. MSH Inhibitory hormone (MSHIH) - It inhibits the secretion of melanocytes stimulating hormone from the intermediate lobe of the pituitary gland.

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