NCERT Class 11-Biology: Chapter – 5 Morphology of Flowering Plants Part 5 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2023)

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Question 10:

Tendrils are found in the following plants. Identify whether they are stem tendrils or leaf tendrils.

a. Cucumber

b. Peas

c. Pumpkins

d. Grapevine

e. Watermelons

Answer:

a. Cucumber – Stem tendrils

Stem tendrils which develop from axillary buds, are slender and spirally coiled and help plants to climb.

b. Peas – Leaf tendrils

Leaves are often modified to perform functions other than photosynthesis. They are converted into tendrils for climbing.

c. Pumpkins – stem tendrils

Stem tendrils which develop from axillary buds, are slender and spirally coiled and help plants to climb.

d. Grapevines – stem tendrils

Stem tendrils which develop from axillary buds, are slender and spirally coiled and help plants to climb.

e. Watermelons – stem tendrils

Stem tendrils which develop from axillary buds, are slender and spirally coiled and help plants to climb.

Question 11:

Why is maize grain usually called as a fruit and not a seed?

Answer:

The maize grain is usually called fruit because it is a ripened ovary which contains a ripened ovule. This fruit is caryopsis in which the pericarp is fused with the seed coat. The maize grain occurs attached to a thick cob or peduncle.

Question 12:

Tendrils of grapevines are homologous to the tendril of pumpkins but are analogous to that of pea. Justify the above statement.

Answer:

The stem may not always be typically like what they are expected to be. They are modified to perform different functions.

Stem tendrils develop from axillary buds. They are slender and spirally coiled and help plants to climb.

Leaves are often modified to perform functions other than photosynthesis. They are converted into tendrils for climbing.

The tendrils of grapevines are homologous to the tendril of pumpkins as both are originated from the same part of the plant i.e.. stem but have different functions. In grapevines, the function of tendrils is to climb while in pumpkin is creeping.

The tendrils of grapevines are analogous to the tendrils of pea because they have different origins i.e.. stem and leaf respectively but they have same function i.e.. climbing.

Question 13:

Rhizome of ginger is like the roots of other plants that grows underground. Despite this fact ginger is a stem and not a root. Justify.

Answer:

Rhizome is an underground stem which grows parallel to the soil surface. The adventitious root arises from the lower surface of nodes.

Ginger is a stem not a root because it possess nodes and internodes which are not possessed by the roots.

Question 14:

Differentiate between

a. Bract and Bracteole

b. Pulvinus and petiole

c. Pedicel and peduncle

d. Spike and spadix

e. Stamen and staminoid

f. Pollen and pollenium

Answer:

(a)

Table of Bract and Bracteolate
BractBracteolate
Present at the base of pediclePresent between bract and Flower

(b)

Table of Pulvinus and Petiole
PulvinusPetiole
The swollen leaf base present in the leguminous plantsCylindrical or sub-cylindrical stalk which connects the leaf base with the lamina

(c)

Table of Pedicle and Penducle
PediclePenducle
Present at the base of pedicleStalk of whole inflorescence

(d)

Table of Spike & Spadix
SpikeSpadix
Flowers are sessile that develop on an elongated peduncle in acropetal succession. Example - AdhatodaThe spadix inflorescence is like spike, but it is covered by one to a few large bracts called spates. The peduncle is fleshy and its optical portion isnaked, i.e.. , without flowers.

Example - Colocasia

(e)

Table of Stamen & Staminiod
StamenStaminiod
Each stamen represents a male reproductive organ.Every sterile stamen is called staminoid

(f)

Table of Pollen & Pollonium
PollenPollonium
Male gametophyte of angiosperms.Group of pollens forms polonium (present in Calotropis)