NCERT Class 11-Biology: Chapter – 6 Anatomy of Flowering Plants Part 6 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2023)

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Question 11:

Write the precise function of

a. Sieve tube

b. Interfasicular cambium

c. Collenchyma

d. Aerenchyma


(a) Translocation of food

(b) It facilitates secondary growth

(c) It provides mechanical support to young stem.

(d) It provides buoyancy to floating plants.

Question 12:

The Stomatal pore is guarded by two kidney shaped guard cells. Name the epidermal cells surrounding the guard cells. How does a guard cell differ from an epidermal cell? Use a diagram to illustrate your answer.


The epidermal cells surrounding the guard cells are known as Subsidiary cells.

The difference between guard cell and epidermal cell is as follows:

Guard Cell Epidermal Cell
Guard cellEpidermal Cell
1. They are kidney shaped1. They are barrel shaped
2. They have chloroplast2. They do not have chloroplast
3. They are smaller in size3. They are bigger in size
4. Cells walls are not uniform and are think4. Cell walls are uniform and thin
5. They carry photosynthesis.5. They do not carry photosynthesis.
Guard Cell and Epidermal Cell

Question 13:

Point out the differences in the anatomy of, leaf of peepal (Ficus religiosa) and maize (Zea mays) . Draw the diagrams and label the differences.


Ficus Leaf, Maize Leaf
Ficus LeafMaize Leaf
(i) This is a dorsiventral leaf(i) This is an isobilateral leaf
(ii) Stomata are more on lower surface(ii) Stomata are equal in number on both the surfaces.
(iii) Mesophyll is made up of two types of tissues, viz. spongy parenchyma and palisade parenchyma.(iii) Mesophyll is made up of only spongy parenchyma.
(iv) Parenchymatous cells or some collenchymatous cells are found just above and below the vascular bundle.(iv) Sclerenchymatous cells are found just above and below the vascular bundle.
(v) Bulliform cells are absent(v) Bulliform cells are present.

Question 14:

Palm is a monocotyledonous plant, yet it increases in girth. Why and how?


Palm is a monocotyledonous plant, yet it increases in girth slowly due to secondary growth. It is due to Parenchymatons cell division and enlargement in the ground tissue. Thus, repeated divisions cause increase in girth of stem.

This type of secondary growth is known as Diffused secondary growth.

The monocotyledonous plant does not have primary cambium in the vascular bundles. But in palm a secondary cambium may be formed in the hypodermal region and that forms conjunctive tissue and meristematic cells.

The meristematic cells form new tissues to increase the girth of the stem.