NCERT Class 12 Biology: Chapter –4 Reproductive Health Part 3

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Question 4:

STDs can be considered as self-invited diseases. Comment.

Answer:

STD are communicable diseases; which these diseases can spread from one person to another. All the STDs happen because of lack of precaution during coitus. If sufficient precaution are taken, then STDs can be avoided. Hence, it can be said that STDs are self-invited diseases.

Question 5:

Suggest the reproduction-related aspects in which counselling should be provided at the school level.

Answer:

The reproduction-related aspects in which counselling should be provided at the school levels are as follows:

(a) Physical and psychological changes at puberty.

(b) Misconceptions about reproductive system.

(c) STDs

(d) Reproductive health

Question 6:

Mention the primary aim of the “Assisted Reproductive Technology” (ART) programme.

Answer:

ART – Assisted Reproductive Technology is collection of special techniques (like ZIFT, IUT, GIFT, ICSI, etc.) to overcome infertility.

The primary aim of the “Assisted Reproductive Technology” (ART) programme is to help infertile couples to have children through these special techniques.

Question 7:

What is the significance of progesterone-estrogen combination as a contraceptive measure?

Answer:

The significance of progesterone-estrogen combination as a contraceptive measure is as follows:

(a) They are convenient as they need to be taken orally.

(b) They have least side effects and hence are user-friendly.

Question 8:

Strict conditions are to be followed in medical termination of pregnancy (MTP) procedures. Mention two reasons.

Answer:

i. MTPs are often used to abort foetuses if they’re found to be female. To avoid this cruel and sexist practice, strict guidelines and laws are to be put in place.

ii. MTPs are sometimes illegally performed by unqualified people which is unsafe in some cases fatal too.

Question 9:

Males in whom testes fail to descend to the scrotum are generally infertile. Why?

Answer:

Scrotum has a protective function, they act like a climate control system for testes and allow formation and development of sperm in the testes.

Testes are very sensitive to temperature, if they do not descend into the scrotum prior to adolescence, they will stop producing sperms. This leads to inhibition of gametogenesis and hence causes infertility.

Question 10:

Mention two advantages of lactational amenorrhea as a contraceptive method.

Answer:

Two advantages of lactational amenorrhea as a contraceptive method are as follows

(a) It has no side effect.

(b) It does not hamper in regular sexual activity.

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1:

Suggest some important steps that you would recommend to be taken to improve the reproductive health standards in India.

Answer:

Important steps to be taken to improve the reproductive health standards in India are as follows:

i. Introduction of sex education at school level to create awareness about various sex-related aspects

ii. Create awareness related to various reproduction-related aspects too

iii. By providing infrastructural facilities and professional expertise to attain reproductive health.

iv. With the help of audio-visual and the print-media, governmental and non-governmental agencies awareness can be spread.

v. Parents, other close relatives, teachers and friends, also have a major role in the dissemination of the above information.

vi. Educating people, especially fertile couples and those in marriageable age group, about available birth control options, care of pregnant mothers, post-natal care of the mother and child, importance of breastfeeding, equal opportunities for the male and the female child, etc., would address the importance of bringing up socially conscious healthy families of desired size.

vii. Also educating people about safe and hygienic sexual practices and safeguard against STDs.

viii. Awareness of problems due to population explosion, social evils like sex-abuse and sex-related crimes.

ix. Statutory ban on amniocentesis to legally check female foeticides.

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