NCERT Class 12 Biology: Chapter –4 Reproductive Health Part 4

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Question 2:

The procedure of GIFT involves the transfer of female gamete to the fallopian tube. Can gametes be transferred to the uterus to achieve the same result? Explain.


GIFT – Gamete Intra Fallopian Transfer is one of the methods of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). GIFT is transfer of an ovum collected from a donor into the fallopian tube of another female who cannot produce an ovum, but can provide suitable environment for fertilisation.

And if the gametes/ovum is transferred to the uterus, from uterus they cannot move to fallopian tube. And also fertilisation does not take place in uterus as uterine environment is not congenial for the survival of the gametes. Hence the same results cannot be achieved.

And also if gametes are directly transferred to uterus they get degenerated or could be phagocytosed and hence viable zygote is not formed. So, same result is not possible.

Question 3:

Copper ions-releasing IUDs are more efficient than non-medicated methods. Why?


Copper ions-releasing IUDs are more efficient than non-medicated methods because:

i. Cu ions released suppress sperm motility and fertilizing capacity of sperms.

ii. It increases phagocytosis of sperms within the uterus.

iii. They are one of the safest and most effective.

iv. They are easy to get inserted so convenient. And these IUDs can be removed whenever not required, so reversible in nature.

v. They are less expensive.

iv. It has no side-effects and can be safely used by breastfeeding women.

Question 4:

What are the probable factors that contributed to population explosion in India?


Population explosion means sudden and rapid rise in the population growth.

The probable factors that contributed to population explosion in India are:

i. In India the quality of life of people improved. This led to increased health facilities and better living conditions. This is one of the reasons of population explosion.

ii. Rapid decline in death rate, maternal mortality rate (MMR) and infant mortality rate (IMR)

iii. Increase in number of people of reproducible age.

iv. People mostly in rural areas are unaware and their ignorance about the ill effects of increasing population is also leading to population explosion.

v. Poverty and illiteracy

vi. Social stigmas surrounding girl child.

vii. Desire to have a male child makes people to have more children.

Question 5:

Briefly explain IVF and ET What are the conditions in which these methods are advised?


IVF – In Vitro Fertilisation is the process of fertilisation outside the body in conditions similar to the body’s internal environment.

This method is preferable for females who cannot conceive.

IVF is also known as test tube baby programme.

In this method the gametes from the male (sperm) and female (ova) are collected hygienically and are allowed to fuse (to form zygote) in a laboratory set up under simulated conditions.

The zygote formed is collected and is introduced into the uterine region of a host or surrogate mother at an appropriate time.

ET – Embryo Transfer, IVF is followed by ET in many ways like IUT or, ZIFT

It is final step of IVF process.

The main purpose of ET is to facilitate conception following Fertilisation from IVF procedure.

Question 6:

What are the advantages of natural methods of contraception over artificial methods?


The advantages of natural methods of contraception over artificial methods are:

i. There are no side effects in natural methods since neither medicines nor any intra uterine devices are used.

ii. There is no surgical intervention, so natural methods aren’t irreversible.

iii. Natural method can be used at any stage of the reproductive cycle.

iv. Natural methods are cost-effective.

v. Immediate return of fertility occurs when not in use.

Question 7:

What are the conditions in which medical termination of pregnancy is advised?


Medical Termination of Pregnancy also known as abortion is intentional or voluntary termination of pregnancy.

The conditions in which medical termination of pregnancy is advised are as follows:

i. MTPs are advised when continuation of the pregnancy could be harmful or even fatal either to the mother, the foetus or to both.

ii. MTPs are advised if the foetus is suffering from an incurable disease.

iii. MTPs are considered safe if done in first trimester of the pregnancy.

iv. MTPs are advisable when one wants to terminate an unwanted pregnancy.

v. MTPs require the assistance of qualified medical personnel; otherwise they are unsafe and could also be fatal of mother.