NCERT Class 12 Biology: Chapter – 4 Reproductive Health Part 7 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Question 4:

Do you justify the statutory ban on amniocentesis in our country? Give reasons.


Amniocentesis is the process usually used to determine any abnormalities in the developing foetus like genetic defects or metabolic disorders.

Yes I do justify the statutory ban on amniocentesis in our country. The following are the reasons for justification:

i. But in India this amniocentesis is misused and is used to determine the sex of the foetus. And determination of sex of foetus is illegal.

ii. And if female foetus is found the pregnancy is terminated leading to female foeticide. This is done due to increasing demand for male child either due to small family or due to orthodoxy. And female foeticide is again illegal.

iii. By female foeticide the male-female ratio in the country is getting disturbed, which is leading negative impact on the society.

iv. Amniocentesis is usually done in second trimester. And termination of pregnancy in second termination can be fatal even to mother. This is again a drawback of amniocentesis.

As we can see amniocentesis is illegally used many times hence there should be strict rules as to conduct amniocentesis only if foetus is suffering from any diseases.

To avoid such circumstances we should make people aware by raising the social and economic status of women in the society.

Question 5:

Enumerate and describe any five reasons for introducing sex education to school-going children.


Reasons for introducing sex education to school-going children are as follows:

i. This helps in giving correct information related to sex-related aspects and also helps protects children from myths and misconceptions related to sex-related issues.

ii. This helps in creating awareness related to various reproduction-related aspects, which thereby helps them in leading a healthy reproductive life in future. That is by providing information on reproductive organs, adolescence-related changes like menstrual cycles, menstrual problems, etc.

iii. By educating children about the available birth control options, pregnancy, post-natal care of the mother and child, importance of breastfeeding, gender equality, would allow the younger generation to be educated and aware of sexual wellbeing.

iv. Educating children of age group 12 and above about safe and hygienic sexual practices ensures safeguard against STDs.

v. This helps in creating awareness of problems due to population explosion, social evils like sex-abuse and sex-related crimes.

vi. Children should know about the body changes during certain age and they should know about healthy habits including personal cleanliness and hygiene.

vii. Children should be given such education so that they overcome hesitation and gain confidence to discuss any doubts or problems with their parents or teachers.

viii. This type of education also helps in children to lead a healthy reproductive life in future.