NCERT Class 12 Biology: Chapter –8 Human Health and Diseases Part 10

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Question 3:

Why do some adolescents start taking drugs. How can this be avoided?

Answer:Drugs are chemical substances that have a psychological and physiological affect on your system. Some drugs are illegal such as Cocaine, Morphine, Heroin, LSD etc.

Some adolescents start taking drugs :

1. Peer pressure:

Sometimes peers pressurise a person into taking drugs, so a person starts taking drugs to make themselves accepted in the social circle.

2. Feeling of Betterment:

People start taking drugs to feel better or get a feeling of euphoria. This feeling arises when the drugs interact with the neurological receptors in the brain.

3. Experimentation

Some people do drugs to experiment, to feel the thrill and excitement behind it.

4. Depression:

Some people take drugs to combat depression. Drugs make a person feel happy and relaxed.

These can be avoided:

1. The person try to deal with the pressure by talking to friends, family or any professional help can also be taken.

2. Strictly say ‘NO’ to any person forcing drugs on you.

3. A person should not give into peer pressure.

4. Stay healthy, eat healthy and do lot of exercises and physical activity.

Question 4:

In your locality, if a person is addicted to alcohol, what kind of behavioural changes do you observe in that person? Suggest measures to over-come the problem.

Answer:If a person is addicted to alcohol some behavioural changes are seen such as:

1. If a person is addicted, an individual would develop selfish attitude and may deprive his family for the needs to fulfil their own.

2. Significant time is required to get over the influence of alcohol.

3. Reduced attention to personal and professional life.

4. Withdrawal symptoms are seen when alcohol intake stops.

5. Repeated unsuccessful attempts to stop alcohol intake.

Measures to overcome Alcoholism:

1. Seek professional help if required.

2. Talk to family and friends about the issue.

3. Set a drinking limit to drink below the recommended guidelines.

4. Try getting busy with personal and professional life.

5. Watch out for peer pressure. Do not give in to social pressure.

Question 5:

What are the methods of cancer detection? Describe the common approaches for treatment of cancer.

Answer:Mutation in the genes may lead to uncontrollable and rapid division of the cells forming a mass or tumour. This mass is known as cancer. A cancer cell is different from a normal cell as cancer cells are able to metastasize, that is move from one place to another through lymphatic system and the bloodstream, and are highly invasive.

Methods of cancer detection are:

1. Bone marrow biopsy:

Removal of a small piece of bone within the bone marrow is done to detect the cancer cells.

2. Endoscopic Assessment:

A long, thin lighted tube having X-ray is inserted inside the organ which is to be detected.

3. CT Scan:

CT scan or computed tomography is done which uses X-rays to detect any abnormalities like lumps, tumour within the internal body structures.

4. Monoclonal Antibodies:

These are used in detecting the antigens of the small molecules produced by the cancerous cells.

5. MRI: Magnetic Resonance Imagining is done using magnetic radiations and radio frequencies to detect any abnormality in the soft tissues.

6. Ultrasound:

In this test sound waves are used to produce images of the internal body organs and checking for any abnormality in them.