NCERT Class X Science Class: Chapter –4. Carbon and its Compounds – Part-12

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Question 48:

  1. What are hydrocarbons? Give examples.

  2. Give the structural differences between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with two examples each.

  3. What is a functional group? Give examples of four different functional groups.

Answer:

(a) Hydrocarbons:

Compounds of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons. Example, methane, ethane etc.

(b) Structural differences between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons:

Saturated hydrocarbons contain carbon- carbon single bonds.

Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain at least one carbon – carbon double or triple bond.

Image Structural differences saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons

Image Structural Differences Saturated and Unsaturated Hydrocarbons

Image Structural differences saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons

(c) Functional group: An atom/group of atoms joined in a specific manner which is responsible for the characteristic chemical properties of the organic compounds. Examples are hydroxyl group aldehyde group carboxylic group etc.

Question 49:

Name the reaction which is commonly used in the conversion of vegetable oils to fats. Explain the reaction involved in detail.

Answer:

The reaction which is commonly used in the conversion of vegetable oils to fats is called hydrogenation reaction.

During this reaction, hydrogen is added to unsaturated hydrocarbon. This is an addition reaction which takes place in the presence of catalyst; like palladium or nickel. Addition of hydrogen leads to conversion of unsaturated hydrocarbon to saturated hydrocarbon.

This can be shown by following equation:

Image the hydrogenation reaction

Image the Hydrogenation Reaction

Image the hydrogenation reaction

Question 50:

  1. Write the formula and draw electron dot structure of carbon tetrachloride.

  2. What is saponification? Write the reaction involved in this process.

Answer:

For A:

is molecular formula of carbon tetrachloride and electron dot structure of carbon tetrachloride is shown in below:

Image electrons dot structure of carbon tetrachloride

Image Electrons Dot Structure of Carbon Tetrachloride

Image electrons dot structure of carbon tetrachloride

OR

Image electron dot structure of carbon tetrachloride

Image Electron Dot Structure of Carbon Tetrachloride

Image electron dot structure of carbon tetrachloride

For B:

Saponification is the process of converting esters into salts of carboxylic acids and ethanol by treating them with a base.

It is used in the preparation of soap

Image Saponification process

Image Saponification Process

Image Saponification process