NCERT Class 10 Social Science Exemplar Chapter-3 Democracy and Diversity Questions and Answers Part 1

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Question 1: Discuss three factors that determine the outcomes of politics of social divisions.

Answer: Three factors which determine the outcomes of politics of social divisions: The people’s perception of their identities When this is singular, the accommodation of other identities becomes difficult. Representation of a community by political leaders while representing a community, if politicians raise demands that are constitutional, then it is easier to accommodate those demands. The government’s reaction if the reasonable demands of a community are suppressed by the government, then it leads to social divisions, which in turn threaten the integrity of the country.

Question 2: When does a social difference become a social division?

Answer: When different social differences overlap, one particular social difference gains in prominence. This leads to the creation of social division and tension. For example, in Northern Ireland, the social differences of class and religion overlap each other. The Catholics are usually the ones who are poor, while the Protestants are the ones who are well off. The religious differences are accentuated by this overlap. As a result, there are conflicts between the two religious groups.

In other words, a social difference becomes a social division when it coincides with other social differences, which in turn serve to heighten the said difference.

Question 3: How do social divisions affect politics? Give two examples.

Answer: A combination of social divisions and politics can be really dangerous. A democracy involves competition among various political parties. As their competition tends to divide society, if they start competing in terms of some existing social divisions, then it can convert those social divisions into political divisions, which can lead to conflict, violence and even disintegration of the country. An example of this is the disintegration of Yugoslavia into six independent countries.

However, the combination of social divisions and politics is not always negative. The political expression of social divisions allows marginalised and disadvantaged social groups to express their grievances and ask the government to rectify them. The system of reservation of seats in Indian legislatures for the socially disadvantaged has allowed such social groups to have an adequate representation in the decision making process.

Question 4: ____________social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions. ____________social differences do not usually lead to conflicts.

Answer: Overlapping social differences create possibilities of deep social divisions and tensions. Cross cutting social differences do not usually lead to conflicts.

Question 5: In dealing with social divisions which one of the following statements is NOT correct about democracy?

Answer: (a) Due to political competition in a democracy, social divisions get reflected in politics.

(b) In a democracy it is possible for communities to voice their grievances in a peaceful manner.

(c) Democracy is the best way to accommodate social diversity.

(d) Democracy always leads to disintegration of society on the basis of social divisions.

Answer: (d) Democracy always leads to disintegration of society on the basis of social divisions.

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