NCERT Class 10 Social Science Exemplar Chapter-4 Gender, Religion and Caste in Politics Questions and Answers Part 1

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Question 1: Mention different aspects of life in which women are discriminated or disadvantaged in India.

Answer: In India, women are discriminated and disadvantaged n the following ways:

(a) They are not provided adequate education. Thus, the literacy rate among women is just 54%.

(b) Most of the labour done by them is unpaid. Where they are paid for their work, they receive lesser wages than men.

(c) Due to the preference for the boy child, female foeticide is practiced in many parts of the country.

Question 2: State different forms of communal politics with one example each.

Answer: Different forms of communal politics:

(a) The expression of communal superiority in everyday beliefs Militant religious groups are a good example of this.

(b) The desire to form a majoritarian dominance or a separate state Separatist leaders and political parties in Jammu and Kashmir and Central India are an example of this.

(c) The use of religious symbols and leaders in politics to appeal to the voters this technique is applied by many politicians to influence voters from the two largest religious communities in the country.

(d) In addition to all this, communal politics can take the form of communal violence and riots, like the riots in Gujarat in 2002.

Question 3: State how caste inequalities are still continuing in India.

Answer: Caste inequalities have not completely disappeared from India. Even today, most people marry within their own caste or tribe. Despite constitutional prohibition, untouchability has not ended completely. Education is not easily available to the so called ‘low castes’. Economic status is closely linked to the caste system. In modern India, like in pre-independence India, the poor are mostly the ‘low castes’ while the rich are the ‘high castes’, thereby showing that caste inequalities are still continuing in India.

Question 4: State two reasons to say that caste alone cannot determine election results in India.

Answer: Caste alone cannot determine election results in India because: No parliamentary constituency has a clear majority of one single caste. No party wins all the votes of a particular caste.

Question 5: What is the status of women’s representation in India’s legislative bodies?

Answer: When it comes to representation of women in legislative bodies, India is among the bottom group of nations in the world. Women’s representation has always been less than 10% in Lok Sabha and 5% in the State Assemblies.

On the other hand, the situation is different in the case of local government bodies. As one-third of seats in local government bodies (panchayats and municipalities) are reserved for women, there are more than 10 lakh elected women representatives in rural and urban local bodies.

Question 6: Mention any two constitutional provisions that make India a secular state.

Answer: Two constitutional provisions that make India a secular state are: The Constitution provides to all individuals and communities freedom to profess, practice and propagate any religion, or not to follow any.

The Constitution prohibits discrimination on grounds of religion.

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