NCERT Class 9 Social Science Exemplar Chapter-2 Socialism in Europe and the Russian Revolution Questions and Answers Part 3

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Question 5: What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?

Answer: The main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution are listed below:

  • The Bolsheviks were not in favour of any private property. Hence most industries and banks were nationalized.

  • Land was declared social property and peasants were allowed to seize the land on which they worked.

  • In cities the large houses were partitioned according to family

  • Use of old titles of aristocracy was banned.

  • To assert the change Bolsheviks introduced new uniforms for the army and officials.

  • The Bolshevik party was renamed as the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik).

  • Russia became a one-party state and Trade unions kept under party control.

  • For the first time they introduced a Centralized planning on the basis of which Five Year Plans were made.

Question 6: Write a few lines to show what you know about:

(i) Kulaks

(ii) The Duma

(iii) Women workers between 1900 and 1930.

(iv) The Liberals.

(v) Stalin’s collectivization programme.

Answer: (i) Kulaks

They were well-to-do peasants. By 1927-28 the towns of Soviet Russia were facing an acute problem of grain supplies. Kulaks were thought to be partly responsible for this. Also to develop modern farms and run them along industrial lines the Party under the leadership of Stalin thought it was necessary to eliminate Kulaks.

(ii) The Duma

During 1905 Revolution, the Tsar allowed the creation of an elected consultative parliament in Russia. This elected consultative parliament in Russia was called Duma.

(iii) Women workers between 1900 and 1930

  • During Russian revolution of 1905, the February Revolution of 1917, the women workers also took part in shaping the future of Russia. Women workers made up to 31% of the factory labour force by 1914, but were paid less than men.

  • Women workers had not only to work in factories but also, had to look after their families and children. They were also very active in all affairs of the country. They often inspired their male co-workers. For instance, let us take the incidence of Marfa Vasileva, a female worker in the Loverz Telephone Factory who raised her voice against the rising prices and the high-handedness of the factory owners and also organized a successful strike. The example of Marfa Vasilva was followed by other women workers and they did not sit idle till they established a socialistic state in Russia.

(iv) The Liberals

The Liberals in Russia were those persons who wanted a nation which tolerated all religions. They wanted to safe-guard the rights of individuals against the governments. They opposed the uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They agreed a representative, elected parliamentary government subject to laws. They wanted an independent judiciary but the liberals did not believe in Universal Adult Franchise. They also did not want the voting right of women.

(v) Stalin’s collectivization programme

  • By 1927-28 the towns in Soviet Russia were facing an acute problem of grain supplies. Stalin, who was the leader of the party at that time, investigated the causes of this problem and introduced some emergency measures accordingly. Stalin’s collectivization programme in 1929 was one of these measures. Under this programme the party forced all farmers to cultivate in collective farms (Kolkhoz). The profit or the produce from a collective farm was shared by the farmers worked on it. However, those farmers who resisted collectivization were severely punished. They did not want to work in collective farms for a variety of reasons. Stalin’s government allowed some independent cultivation, but treated such cultivators unsympathetically.

  • In spite of Stalin’s collectivization programme, production did not increase immediately. In fact the bad harvests of 1930-33 led to one of the worst famines in the Soviet History.

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