Biology Class 11 NCERT Solutions: Chapter 16 Digestion and Absorption Part 3

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Q: 9. How are polysaccharides and disaccharides digested?


The digestion of carbohydrates takes place in the mouth and the small intestine region of the alimentary canal. The enzymes that act on carbohydrates are collectively known as carbohydrases.

Digestion in the mouth:

As food enters the mouth, it gets mixed with saliva. Saliva - secreted by the salivary glands - contains a digestive enzyme called salivary amylase. This enzyme breaks down starch into sugar at .

Digestion in the small intestine:

Carbohydrate-digestion is resumed in the small intestine. Here, the food gets mixed with the pancreatic juice and the intestinal juice. Pancreatic juice contains the pancreatic amylase that hydrolyses the polysaccharides into disaccharides.

Similarly, the intestinal juice contains a variety of enzymes (disaccharidases such as maltase, lactase, sucrose, etc.). These disaccharidases help in the digestion of disaccharides. The digestion of carbohydrates is completed in the small intestine.

Image of the carbohydrate digestion

Image of the Carbohydrate Digestion

Image of the carbohydrate digestion

Q: 10. What would happen if were not secreted in the stomach?


Hydrochloric acid is secreted by the glands present on the stomach walls. It dissolves bits of food and creates an acidic medium. The acidic medium allows pepsinogen to be converted into pepsin. Pepsin plays an important role in the digestion of proteins. Therefore, if were not secreted in the stomach, then pepsin would not be activated. This would affect protein digestion. A of about is necessary for proteins to be digested. This is achieved by .

Q: 11. How does butter in your food gets digested and absorbed in the body?


Digestion of fats:

Butter is a fat product and gets digested in the small intestine. The bile juice secreted by the liver contains bile salts that break down large fat globules into smaller globules, so as to increase their surface area for the action of lipase. This process is referred to as emulsification of fats.

After this, the pancreatic lipase present in the pancreatic juice and the intestinal lipase present in the intestinal juice hydrolyse the fat molecules into triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides, and ultimately into glycerol.

Image shows the fat digestion

Image Shows the Fat Digestion

Image shows the fat digestion

Absorption of fats:

Fat absorption is an active process. During fat digestion, fats are hydrolysed into fatty acids and glycerol. However, since these are water insoluble, they cannot be directly absorbed by the blood. Hence, they are first incorporated into small droplets called micelles and then transported into the villi of the intestinal mucosa.

They are then reformed into small microscopic particles called chylomicrons, which are small, protein-coated fat globules. These chylomicrons are transported to the lymph vessels in the villi. From the lymph vessels, the absorbed food is finally released into the blood stream and from the blood stream, to each and every cell of the body.