Biology Class 11 NCERT Solutions: Chapter 7 Structural Organisation in Animals Part 2

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Q: 7. What are the following and where do you find them in animal body

(A) Chondrocytes

(B) Axons

(C) Ciliated epithelium

Answer:

Chondrocytes:

They are cells of cartilages, and are present in small cavities within the matrix secreted by them.

Axons:

They are long, slender projections of neurons that help in carrying nerve impulses from the neuron body. Axons aggregate in bundles, which make up the nerves.

Ciliated epithelium:

It consists of simple columnar or cuboidal epithelium with cilia on their free surfaces.

It is present on the inner surface of the oviducts and bronchioles. It helps in the movement of eggs or mucus in specific directions.

Q: 8. Describe various types of epithelial tissues with the help of labelled diagrams.

Answer:

Epithelial tissue lines the surface of a body and forms a protective covering.

Epithelium cells are packed tightly together with little intercellular matrix. Epithelial tissue in the body is of two types.

(A) Simple epithelium: It consists of a single layer of cells where cells are in direct contact with the basement membrane. It is further sub-divided into the following types:

(i) Simple squamous epithelium: It consists of a single layer of flat cells with irregular boundaries. It is found in the walls of the blood vessels and in the lining of alveoli.

(ii) Simple cuboidal epithelium: It consists of a single layer of cube-like cells. It is present in regions where secretion and absorption of substances takes place such as the proximal convoluted tubule region of the nephron.

(iii) Simple columnar epithelium: It consists of a single layer of tall, slender cells with their nuclei present at the base of the cells. They may bear microvilli on the free surfaces. Columnar epithelium forms the lining of the stomach and intestines, and is involved in the function of secretion and absorption.

(iv) Ciliated epithelium: It consists of columnar or cuboidal cells with cilia on their free surfaces. They are present in bronchioles and oviducts from where they direct mucus and eggs in specific directions.

(v) Glandular epithelium: It consists of columnar or cuboidal cells involved in the secretion of substances. Glands are of two types, unicellular glands (goblet cells of the alimentary canal) and multicellular glands (salivary glands). They can be classified as exocrine (ductless glands) and endocrine glands (duct glands) by the method through which they release enzymes.

Glandumar epithelium

Glandumar Epithelium

Glandumar epithelium

(B)

Compound epithelium

Compound Epithelium

Compound epithelium

Compound epithelium: It consists of many layers of cells. It is involved mainly in the function of providing protection and has a limited role in secretion and absorption. Examples of compound epithelium include the dry surface of the skin or moist inner lining of the buccal cavity, pharynx, pancreatic ducts, and the inner lining of ducts of salivary glands.