Biology Class 12 NCERT Solutions: Chapter 1 Reproduction in Organisms Part 2

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Q.5 How does the progeny formed from asexual reproduction differ from those formed by sexual reproduction?

Answer:

Table of Progeny Formed from Asexual and Sexual Reproduction
Table of Progeny formed from Asexual and Sexual Reproduction

Progeny formed from asexual reproduction

Progeny formed from sexual reproduction

1.

Asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of the male and the female gamete. Organisms undergoing this kind of reproduction produce offspring’s that are morphologically and genetically identical to them.

Sexual reproduction involves the fusion of the male and the female gamete of two individuals, typically one of each sex. Organisms undergoing this kind of reproduction produce offspring’s that are not identical to them.

2.

Offsprings thus produced do not show variations and are called clones.

Offspring’s thus produced show variations from each other and their parents.

Q.6 Distinguish between asexual and sexual reproduction. Why vegetative reproduction is also considered as a type of asexual reproduction?

Answer:

Table of Sexual and Asexual Reproduction
Table of Sexual and Asexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction

Asexual Reproduction

1.

It involves the fusion of the male and female gamete.

It does not involve the fusion of the male and female gamete.

2.

It requires two (usually) different individuals.

It requires only one individual.

3.

The individuals produced are not identical to their parents and show variations from each other and also, from their parents.

The individuals produced are identical to the parents and are hence, called clones.

4.

Most animals reproduce sexually. Both sexual and asexual modes of reproduction are found in plants.

Asexual modes of reproduction are common in organisms having simple organisms such as algae and fungi.

5.

It is a slow process.

It is a fast process.

  • Vegetative propagation is a process in which new plants are obtained without the production of seeds or spores. It involves the propagation of plants through certain vegetative parts such as the rhizome, sucker, tuber, bulb, etc.

  • It does not involve the fusion of the male and the female gamete and requires only one parent. Hence, vegetative reproduction is considered as a type of asexual reproduction

Q.7 What is vegetative propagation? Give two suitable examples.

Answer:

  • Vegetative propagation is a mode of asexual reproduction in which new plants are obtained from the vegetative parts of plants. It does not involve the production of seeds or spores for the propagation of new plants.

  • Vegetative parts of plants such as runners, rhizomes, suckers, tubers, etc. can be used as propagules for raising new plants.

  • Examples of vegetative reproduction are:

1. Eyes of potato:

  • The surface of a potato has several buds called eyes. Each of these buds when buried in soil develops into a new plant, which is identical to the parent plant.

Image of Eyes of Potato.

Image of Eyes of Potato

2. Leaf buds of Bryophyllum:

  • The leaves of Bryophyllum plants bear several adventitious buds on their margins. These leaf buds have the ability to grow and develop into tiny plants when the leaves get detached from the plant and come in contact with moist soil.

Image of Leaf buds of Bryophyllum

Image of Leaf Buds of Bryophyllum

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