Biology Class 12 NCERT Solutions: Chapter 10 Microbes in Human Welfare Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Q. 4 Name some traditional Indian foods made of wheat, rice and Bengal gram (or their products) which involve use of microbes.

Answer:

  1. Wheat:
  2. Product: Bread, cake, etc.
  3. Rice:
  4. Product: Idli, dosa
  5. Bengal gram:
  6. Product: Dhokla, Khandvi
Traditional Indian Foods

Q. 5 In which way have microbes played a major role in controlling diseases caused by harmful bacteria?

Answer:

  • Several micro-organisms are used for preparing medicines. Antibiotics are medicines produced by certain micro-organisms to kill other disease-causing micro-organisms.
  • These medicines are commonly obtained from bacteria and fungi. They either kill or stop the growth of disease-causing Micro-organisms.
  • Streptomycin, tetracycline, and penicillin are common antibiotics. Penicillium notatum produces chemical penicillin, which checks the growth of staphylococci bacteria in the body.
  • Antibiotics are designed to destroy bacteria by weakening their cell walls. As a result of this weakening, certain immune cells such as the white blood cells enter the bacterial cell and cause cell lysis.
  • Cell lysis is the process of destroying cells such as blood cells and bacteria.

Q. 6 Name any two species of fungus, which are used in the production of the antibiotics.

Answer:

  • Antibiotics are medicines that are produced by certain micro-organisms to kill other disease-causing micro-organisms.
  • These medicines are commonly obtained from bacteria and fungi.

The species of fungus used in the production of antibiotics are:

Table of Production of Antibiotics
AntibioticFungus source
1.PenicillinPenicillium notatum
2.CephalosporinCephalosporium acremonium
Fung

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