Biology Class 12 NCERT Solutions: Chapter 10 Microbes in Human Welfare Part 2

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Q.4 Name some traditional Indian foods made of wheat, rice and Bengal gram (or their products) which involve use of microbes.

Answer:

  1. Wheat:

  2. Product: Bread, cake, etc.

  3. Rice:

  4. Product: Idli, dosa

  5. Bengal gram:

  6. Product: Dhokla, Khandvi

Image of traditional Indian Foods

Image of Traditional Indian Foods

Q.5 In which way have microbes played a major role in controlling diseases caused by harmful bacteria?

Answer:

  • Several micro-organisms are used for preparing medicines. Antibiotics are medicines produced by certain micro-organisms to kill other disease-causing micro-organisms.

  • These medicines are commonly obtained from bacteria and fungi. They either kill or stop the growth of disease-causing Micro-organisms.

  • Streptomycin, tetracycline, and penicillin are common antibiotics. Penicillium notatum produces chemical penicillin, which checks the growth of staphylococci bacteria in the body.

  • Antibiotics are designed to destroy bacteria by weakening their cell walls. As a result of this weakening, certain immune cells such as the white blood cells enter the bacterial cell and cause cell lysis.

  • Cell lysis is the process of destroying cells such as blood cells and bacteria.

Q.6 Name any two species of fungus, which are used in the production of the antibiotics.

Answer:

  • Antibiotics are medicines that are produced by certain micro-organisms to kill other disease-causing micro-organisms.

  • These medicines are commonly obtained from bacteria and fungi.

The species of fungus used in the production of antibiotics are:

Table of Production of Antibiotics
Table of Production of Antibiotics

Antibiotic

Fungus source

1.

Penicillin

Penicillium notatum

2.

Cephalosporin

Cephalosporium acremonium

Image of Fung

Image of Fung

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