Biology Class 12 NCERT Solutions: Chapter 12 Biotechnology and its Application Part 3

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Q.7 Can you suggest a method to remove oil (hydrocarbon) from seeds based on your understanding of rDNA technology and chemistry of oil?

Answer:

  • Recombinant DNA technology (rDNA) is a technique used for manipulating the genetic material of an organism to obtain the desired result.

  • For example, this technology is used for removing oil from seeds. The constituents of oil are glycerol and fatty acids.

  • Using rDNA, one can obtain oilless seeds by preventing the synthesis of either glycerol or fatty acids.

  • This is done by removing the specific gene responsible for the synthesis.

Image of Recombinant DNA

Image of Recombinant DNA

Q.8 Find out from internet what is golden rice.

Answer:

  • Golden rice is a genetically modified variety of rice, Oryza sativa, which has been developed as a fortified food for areas where there is a shortage of dietary vitamin A.

  • It contains a precursor of pro-vitamin A, called beta-carotene, which has been introduced into the rice through genetic engineering.

  • The rice plant naturally produces beta-carotene pigment in its leaves. However, it is absent in the endosperm of the seed.

  • This is because beta-carotene pigment helps in the process of photosynthesis while photosynthesis does not occur in endosperm.

  • Since beta-carotene is a precursor of provitamin A, it is introduced into the rice variety to fulfil the shortage of dietary vitamin A.

  • It is simple and a less expensive alternative to vitamin supplements. However, this variety of rice has faced a significant opposition from environment activists.

  • Therefore, they are still not available in market for human consumption.

Q.9 Does our blood have proteases and nucleases?

Answer:

  • No, human blood does not include the enzymes, nucleases and proteases.

  • In human beings, blood serum contains different types of protease inhibitors, which protect the blood proteins from being broken down by the action of proteases.

  • The enzyme, nucleases, catalysis the hydrolysis of nucleic acids that is absent in blood.

Q.10 Consult internet and find out how to make orally active protein pharmaceutical. What is the major problem to be encountered?

Answer:

  • Orally active protein pharmaceuticals contain biologically active materials such as peptides or proteins, antibodies, and polymeric beads.

  • It is administrated orally into the body through various formulations. It involves the encapsulation of protein or peptide in liposomes or formulations using penetration enhancers.

  • These proteins or peptides are used for treatment of various diseases and are also used as vaccines. However, the oral administration of these peptides or proteins has some problems related to it.

  • Once these proteins are ingested, the proteases present in the stomach juices denature the protein. As a result, their effect will be nullified.

  • Hence, it is necessary to protect the therapeutic protein from digestive enzymes, if taken orally. This is the reason for the proteins to be injected directly into the target site

Image of Orally Active Protein

Image of Orally Active Protein

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