Biology Class 12 NCERT Solutions: Chapter 15 Biodiversity and Conservation Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2023)

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Q. 6 How is biodiversity important for ecosystem functioning?

Answer:

  • An ecosystem with high species diversity is much more stable than an ecosystem with low species diversity.
  • Also, high biodiversity makes the ecosystem more stable in productivity and more resistant towards disturbances such as alien species invasions and floods.
  • If an ecosystem is rich in biodiversity, then the ecological balance would not get affected. As we all know, various trophic levels are connected through food chains.
  • If any one organism or all organisms of any one trophic level is killed, then it will disrupt the entire food chain.
  • For example, in a food chain, if all plants are killed, then all deer՚s will die due to the lack of food. If all deer՚s are dead, soon the tigers will also die.
  • Therefore, it can be concluded that if an ecosystem is rich in species, then there will be other food alternatives at each trophic level which would not allow any organism to die due to the absence of their food resource.
  • Hence, biodiversity plays an important role in maintaining the health and ecological balance of an ecosystem.
Biodiversity

Q. 7 What are sacred groves? What is their role in conservation?

Answer:

  • Sacred groves are tracts of forest which are regenerated around places of worship. Sacred groves are found in Rajasthan, Western Ghats of Karnataka and Maharashtra, Meghalaya and Madhya Pradesh.
  • Sacred groves help in the protection of many rare, threatened, and endemic species of plants and animals found in an area.
  • The process of deforestation is strictly prohibited in this region by tribal. Hence, the sacred grove biodiversity is a rich area.
Sacred Groves of India

Q. 8 Among the ecosystem services are control of floods and soil erosion. How is this achieved by the biotic components of the ecosystem?

Answer:

  • The biotic components of an ecosystem include the living organisms such as plants and animals. Plants play a very important role in controlling floods and soil erosion.
  • The roots of plants hold the soil particles together, thereby preventing the top layer of the soil to get eroded by wind or running water.
  • The roots also make the soil porous, thereby allowing ground water infiltration and preventing floods.
  • Hence, plants are able to prevent soil erosion and natural calamities such as floods and droughts. They also increase the fertility of soil and biodiversity.