Biology Class 12 NCERT Solutions: Chapter 4 Reproductive Health Part 3 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

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Q. 7 Removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option. Why?


  • Contraceptive devices are used to prevent unwanted pregnancy and to prevent the spreading of STDs.
  • There are many methods, such as natural, barrier, oral, and surgical methods, that prevent unwanted pregnancy.
  • However, the complete removal of gonads cannot be a contraceptive option because it will lead to infertility and unavailability of certain hormones that are required for normal functioning of accessory reproductive parts.
  • Therefore, only those contraceptive methods can be used that prevent the chances of fertilization rather than making the person infertile forever.
  • Contraceptives are practiced only before or during the period of sexual act and are only temporary requirements.

Q. 8 Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment.


  • Amniocentesis is a pre-natal diagnostic technique that is used to determine the sex and metabolic disorders of the developing foetus in the mother՚s uterus through the observation of the chromosomal patterns.
  • This method was developed so as to determine any kind of genetic disorder present in the foetus.
  • However, unfortunately, this technique is being misused to detect the sex of the child before birth and the female foetus is then aborted.
  • Thus, to prevent the increasing female foeticides, it is necessary to ban the usage of amniocentesis technique for determining the sex of a child.

Q. 9 Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.


  • Infertility is the inability of a couple to produce a baby even after unprotected intercourse. It might be due to abnormalities present in either male or female, or might be even both the partners.
  • The techniques used to assist infertile couples to have children are as follows.
  • Test tube babies
  • This involves in-vitro fertilization where the sperms meet the egg outside the body of a female.
  • The zygote, hence produced, is then transferred in the uterus or fallopian tube of a normal female.
  • The babies produced from this method are known as test tube babies.
  • Gamete Intra fallopian transfer (GIFT)
  • It is a technique that involves the transfer of gamete (ovum) from a donor into the fallopian tube of the recipient female who is unable to produce eggs, but has the ability to conceive and can provide right conditions for the development of an embryo.
  • Intra Cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)
  • It is a method of injecting sperm directly into the ovum to form an embryo in laboratory.
  • Artificial insemination
  • Artificial insemination is a method of transferring semen (sperm) from a healthy male donor into the vagina or uterus of the recipient female.
  • It is employed when the male partner is not able to inseminate the female or has low sperm counts.

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