Biology Class 12 NCERT Solutions: Chapter 6 Molecular Basis of Inheritance Part 5 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2022)

Get unlimited access to the best preparation resource for CBSE/Class-12 : get questions, notes, tests, video lectures and more- for all subjects of CBSE/Class-12.

(c) Translation

  • Translation is the process of polymerizing amino acid to form a polypeptide chain. The triplet sequence of base pairs in mRNA defines the order and sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain.
  • The process of translation involves three steps.
  • Initiation
  • Elongation
  • Termination
  • During the initiation of the translation, tRNA gets charged when the amino acid binds to it using ATP.
  • The start (initiation) codon (AUG) present on mRNA is recognized only by the charged tRNA. The ribosome acts as an actual site for the process of translation and contains two separate sites in a large subunit for the attachment of subsequent amino acids.
  • The small subunit of ribosome binds to mRNA at the initiation codon (AUG) followed by the large subunit. Then, it initiates the process of translation.
  • During the elongation process, the ribosome moves one codon downstream along with mRNA so as to leave the space for binding of another charged tRNA.
  • The amino acid brought by tRNA gets linked with the previous amino acid through a peptide bond and this process continues resulting in the formation of a polypeptide chain.
  • When the ribosome reaches one or more STOP codon (VAA, UAG, and UGA) , the process of translation gets terminated.
  • The polypeptide chain is released and the ribosomes get detached from mRNA.
Translation of Proteins

(d) Bioinformatics

  • Bioinformatics is the application of computational and statistical techniques to the field of molecular biology. It solves the practical problems arising from the management and analysis of biological data.
  • The field of bioinformatics developed after the completion of human genome project (HGP) . This is because enormous amount of data has been generated during the process of HGP that has to be managed and stored for easy access and interpretation for future use by various scientists.
  • Hence, bioinformatics involves the creation of biological databases that store the vast information of biology. It develops certain tools for easy and efficient access to the information and its utilization.
  • Bioinformatics has developed new algorithms and statistical methods to find out the relationship between the data, to predict protein structure and their functions, and to cluster the protein sequences into their related families.

Developed by: