Biology Class 12 NCERT Solutions: Chapter 9 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Part 2 (For CBSE, ICSE, IAS, NET, NRA 2023)

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Q. 4 Name the methods employed in animal breeding. According to you which one of the methods is best? Why?


Animal breeding is the method of mating closely related individuals. There are several methods employed in animals breeding, which can be classified into the following categories:

(a) Natural methods of breeding include inbreeding and out-breeding. Breeding between animals of the same breed is known as inbreeding, while breeding between animals of different breeds is known as out-breeding.

Outbreeding of animals is of three types:

  1. Out-crossing: In this type of out-breeding, the mating of animals occurs within the same breed. Thus, they have no common ancestors up to the last 4 - 5 generations.
  2. Cross-breeding: In this type of out-breeding, the mating occurs between different breeds of the same species, thereby producing a hybrid.
  3. Interspecific hybridization: In this type of out-breeding, the mating occurs between different species.

(b) Artificial methods of breeding include modern techniques of breeding. It involves controlled breeding experiments, which are of two types:

  1. Artificial insemination: It is a process of introducing the semen (collected from the male) into the oviduct or the uterus of the female body by the breeder. This method of breeding helps the breeder overcome certain problems faced in abnormal mating.
  2. Multiple ovulation embryo technology (MOET) : It is a technique for cattle improvement in which super-ovulation is induced by a hormone injection. Then, fertilization is achieved by artificial insemination and early embryos are collected. Each of these embryos are then transplanted into the surrogate mother for further development of the embryo.
  • The best method to carry out animal breeding is the artificial method of breeding, which includes artificial insemination and MOET technology.
  • These technologies are scientific in nature. They help overcome problems of normal mating and have a high success rate of crossing between mature males and females.
  • Also, it ensures the production of hybrids with the desired qualities. This method is highly economical as a small amount of semen from the male can be used to inseminate several cattle.

Q. 5 What is apiculture? How is it important in our lives?


  • Apiculture is the practice of bee-keeping for the production of various products such as honey, bee՚s wax, etc.
  • Honey is a highly nutritious food source and is used as an indigenous system of medicines. It is useful in the treatment of many disorders such as cold, flu, and dysentery.
  • Other commercial products obtained from honey bees include bee՚s wax and bee pollen. Bee՚s wax is used for making cosmetics, polishes, and is even used in several medicinal preparations.
  • Therefore, to meet the increasing demand of honey, people have started practicing bee-keeping on a large scale.
  • It has become an income generating activity for farmers since it requires a low investment and is labour intensive.

Q. 6 Discuss the role of fishery in enhancement of food production.


  • Fishery is an industry which deals with catching, processing, and marketing of fishes and other aquatic animals that have a high economic value.
  • Some commercially important aquatic animals are prawns crabs, oysters, lobsters, and octopus. Fisheries play an important role in the Indian economy.
  • This is because a large part of the Indian population is dependent on fishes as a source of food, which is both cheap and high in animal protein.
  • A Fishery is an employment generating industry especially for people staying in the coastal areas. Both fresh water fishes (such as Catla, Rohu, etc.) and marine fishes (such as tuna, mackerel pomfret, etc.) are of high economic value.
Enhancement of Food Production