Carbocations and neutral molecules having functional groups such as carbonyl group
For example: , carbanions etc.
Neutral molecules such as and ammonia also act as nucleophiles because of the presence of a lone pair.
Q: 13. Identify the reagents shown in bold in the following equations as nucleophiles or electrophiles:
Electrophiles are electron-deficient species and can receive an electron pair. On the other hand, nucleophiles are electron3rich species and can donate their electrons.
Here, acts as a nucleophile as it is an electron-rich species, i.e., it is a nucleus-seeking species.
Here, acts as a nucleophile as it is an electron – rich species, i.e., it is a nucleus- seeking species.
Here, acts as an electrophile as it is an electron – deficient species.
Q: 14. Classify the following reactions in one of the reaction type studied in this unit.
(A) It is an example of substitution reaction as in this reaction the bromine group in bromoethane is substituted by the –SH group.
(B) It is an example of addition reaction as in this reaction two-reactant molecules combine to form a single product.
(C) It is an example of elimination reaction as in this reaction hydrogen and bromine are removed from bromoethane to give Ethene.
(D) In this reaction, substitution takes place, followed by a rearrangement of atoms and groups of atoms.