Chemistry Class 11 NCERT Solutions: Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure Part 1

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Q: 1. Explain the formation of a chemical bond.

Answer:

A chemical bond is defined as an attractive force that holds the constituents (atoms, ions etc.) together in a chemical species.

Various theories have been suggested for the formation of chemical bonds such as the electronic theory, valence shell electron pair repulsion theory, valence bond theory, and molecular orbital theory.

A chemical bond formation is attributed to the tendency of a system to attain stability. It was observed that the inertness of noble gases was because of their fully filled outermost orbitals. Hence, it was postulated that the elements having incomplete outermost shells are unstable (reactive). Atoms, therefore, combine with each other and complete their respective octets or duplets to attain the stable configuration of the nearest noble gases. This combination can occur either by sharing of electrons or by transferring one or more electrons from one atom to another. The chemical bound formed as a result of sharing of electrons between atoms is called a covalent bond. An ionic bond is formed as a result of the transference of electrons from one atom to another.

Q: 2. Write Lewis dot symbols for atoms of following elements: Equation

Answer:

Equation : There are two valence electrons in Mg atom. Hence, the Lewis dot symbol for Mg is: Equation

Equation : There is only one valence electron in an atom of sodium. Hence, the Lewis dot structure is: Equation

Equation : There are 3 valence electrons in Boron atom. Hence, the Lewis dot structure is:

Lewis dot structure for Boron

Lewis Dot Structure for Boron

Lewis dot structure for Boron

Equation : there are six valence electrons in an atom of oxygen. Hence, the Lewis dot structure is:
Lewis dot structure for Oxygen

Lewis Dot Structure for Oxygen

Lewis dot structure for Oxygen

N: There are five valence electrons in an atom of nitrogen. Hence, the Lewis dot structure is:

Lewis dot structure for Nitrogen ion

Lewis Dot Structure for Nitrogen Ion

Lewis dot structure for Nitrogen ion

Br: There are seven valence electrons in bromine. Hence, the Lewis dot structure is:

Lewis dot structure for Bromine ion

Lewis Dot Structure for Bromine Ion

Lewis dot structure for Bromine ion

Q: 3. Write Lewis symbols for the following atoms and ions: Equation

Answer:

(i) S and Equation

The number of valence electrons in Sulphur is 6.

The Lewis dot symbol of sulphur (S) is

Lewis dot structure for S

Lewis Dot Structure for S

Lewis dot structure for S

The dinegative charge infers that there will be two electrons more in addition to the six

Valence electrons. Hence, the Lewis dot symbol of Equation is

Lewis dot structure for Sulphuric ion

Lewis Dot Structure for Sulphuric Ion

Lewis dot structure for Sulphuric ion

.

(ii) Al and Equation

The number of valence electrons in aluminium is 3.

The Lewis dot symbol of aluminium (Al) is

Lewis dot structure for Al

Lewis Dot Structure for Al

Lewis dot structure for Al

.

The tripositive charge on a species infers that it has donated its three electrons. Hence, the Lewis dot symbol is Equation .

(iii) H and Equation

The number of valence electrons in hydrogen is 1.

The Lewis dot symbol of hydrogen (H) is

Lewis dot structure for hydrogen

Lewis Dot Structure for Hydrogen

Lewis dot structure for hydrogen

.

The uninegative charge infers that there will be one electron more in addition to the one valence electron. Hence, the Lewis dot symbol is Equation .

Q: 4. Draw the Lewis structures for the following molecules and ions: Equation

Answer:

Equation

Image showing Lewis structure of H2S.

Image Showing Lewis Structure of H2S.

Image showing Lewis structure of H2S.

Equation

Image showing Lewis structure of SiCl4.

Image Showing Lewis Structure of SiCl4.

Image showing Lewis structure of SiCl4.

Equation

Image showing Lewis structure of BeF2.

Image Showing Lewis Structure of BeF2.

Image showing Lewis structure of BeF2.

Equation

Image showing Lewis structure of CO3-2.

Image Showing Lewis Structure of CO3-2.

Image showing Lewis structure of CO3-2.

Equation

Image showing Lewis structure of HCOOH.

Image Showing Lewis Structure of HCOOH.

Image showing Lewis structure of HCOOH.

Q: 5. Define octet rule. Write its significance and limitations.

Answer:

The octet rule or the electronic theory of chemical bonding was developed by Kossel and Lewis. According to this rule, atoms can combine either by transfer of valence electrons from one atom to another or by sharing their valence electrons in order to attain the nearest noble gas configuration by having an octet in their valence shell.

octet rule successfully explained the formation of CO2

CO2 Octet Rule

octet rule successfully explained the formation of CO2

The octet rule successfully explained the formation of chemical bonds depending upon the nature of the element.

Limitations of the octet theory:

The following are the limitations of the octet rule:

(A) The rule failed to predict the shape and relative stability of molecules.

(B) It is based upon the inert nature of noble gases. However, some noble gases like xenon and krypton form compounds such as Equation etc.

(C) The octet rule cannot be applied to the elements in and beyond the third period of the periodic table. The elements present in these periods have more than eight valence electrons around the central atom. For example: Equation etc.

Image showing octet rule (expanded rule); PF5, SF6.

Image Showing Octet Rule (Expanded Rule); PF5, SF6.

Image showing octet rule (expanded rule); PF5, SF6.

(D) The octet rule is not satisfied for all atoms in a molecule having an odd number of electrons. For example, Equation do not satisfy the octet rule.

Image showing odd electron molecules NO, NO2.

Image Showing Odd Electron Molecules NO, NO2.

Image showing odd electron molecules NO, NO2.

(E) This rule cannot be applied to those compounds in which the number of electrons surrounding the central atom is less than eight. For example, Equation etc. do not obey the octet rule.

Image showing incomplete octet of the central atom; LiCl, BeH2, AlCl3.

Incomplete Octet of the Central Atom; LiCl, BeH2, AlCl3.

Image showing incomplete octet of the central atom; LiCl, BeH2, AlCl3.

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