Chemistry Class 12 NCERT Solutions: Chapter 1 The Solid State Part 4
Q: 6. 'Stability of a crystal is reflected in the magnitude of its melting point'. Comment. Collect melting points of solid water, ethyl alcohol, diethyl ether and methane from a data book. What can you say about the intermolecular forces between these molecules?
Higher the melting point, greater is the intermolecular force of attraction and greater is the stability. A substance with higher melting point is more stable than a substance with lower melting point.
The melting points of the given substances are:
Now, on observing the values of the melting points, it can be said that among the given substances, the intermolecular force in solid water is the strongest and that in methane is the weakest.
Q: 7. How will you distinguish between the following pairs of terms:
(I) Hexagonal close packing and cubic close packing
(II) Crystal lattice and unit cell?
(III) Tetrahedral void and octahedral void?
hexagonal close packing contains two types of triangular voids (a and b) as shown in figure 1. Let us call this 2-D structure as layer A. Now, particles are kept in the voids present in layer A (it can be easily observed from figures 2 and 3 that only one of the voids will be occupied in the process, i.e., either a or b). Let us call the particles or spheres present in the voids of layer A as layer B. Now, two types of voids are present in layer B (c and d). Unlike the voids present in layer A, the two types of voids present in layer B are not similar. Void c is surrounded by 4 spheres and is called the tetrahedral void. Void d is surrounded by 6 spheres and is called the octahedral void.
Now, the next layer can be placed over layer B in 2 ways.
Case 1: When the third layer (layer C) is placed over the second one (layer B) in such a manner that the spheres of layer C occupy the tetrahedral voids c.
In this case, we get hexagonal close packing. This is shown in figure 4. In figure 4.1, layer B is present over the voids a and layer C is present over the voids c. In figure 4.2, layer B is present over the voids b and layer C is present over the voids c. It can be observed from the figure that in this arrangement, the spheres present in layer C are present directly above the spheres of layer A. Hence, we can say that the layers in hexagonal close packing are arranged in an ABAB. pattern.
Case 2: When the third layer (layer C) is placed over layer B in such a manner that the spheres of layer C occupy the octahedral voids d.
In this case, we get cubic close-packing. In figure 5.1, layer B is present over the voids and layer C is present over the voids d. In figure 5.2, layer B is present over the voids b and layer C is present over the voids d. It can be observed from the figure that the arrangement of particles in layer C is completely different from that in layers A or B. When the fourth layer is kept over the third layer, the arrangement of particles in this layer is similar to that in layer A. Hence, we can say that the layers in cubic close-packing are arranged in an ABCABC. pattern.